Literature on Qanats

This page gives an overview of the literature that we have been able to collect on over qanats.
We are pleased with any further additions to this literature list. Please contact Wilke D. Schram (W.D.Schram@romanaqueducts.info)


HOME Last modified: June, 2014 - Wilke D. Schram

General

  • Barrow 1987 : 'Horizontal' wells (in: Barrow: Water resources and agricultural development in the tropics (1987) pag 247 - 254) - C. Barrow
  • Beckers 2013 : Ancient water harvesting methods in the dry lands of the Mediterranean and Western Asia (in: eTopoi, journal for ancient studies vol 2 (2002 / 2013) pag 145 - 164) - B. Beckers and others
  • Biswas 1985 : Ancient urban water supply systems (in: GeoJournal vol 11-3 (1985) pag 207 - 2013) - A.K. Biswas
  • Briant 2001 : Irrigation et drainage dans l'antiquite, qanats et canalisations .... (in: Bulletin d'histoire archemenide vol 2 (2001)) (on the web) - P. Briant
  • Castellani 2001 : Acqua, acquedotti e qanat (in: Opera Ipogea vol 2 (2001) pag 25 - 31) - V. Castellani
  • Covington 2006 : The art of science of water (in: Saudi Aramco World vol 57 (2006) pag 14 - 23) - R. Covington
  • Cressey 1958 : Qanats, karez, and foggaras (in: Geographical Revies vol 48-1 (1958) pag 27 - 44) - G.B. Cressey
  • Crough 1993 : Natural models for water elements (in: Water management in ancient greek cities) - D.P. Crough
  • English 1968 : The origin and spread of qanats in the world (Proceeding of the American philosophical society vol 112-3 (1968) pag 170 - 181) - P.W. English
  • FG 2004 : Wasserversorgung aus Qanaten - Qanate als Vorbilder im Tunnelbau (Schriftenreihe der Frontinus Gesellschaft, vol 26, 2004)
  • Goblot 1979 : Les qanats, une technique d'acquisition de l'eau - H. Goblot
  • Grewe 1998 : Die qanate des alten Orients (in: Licht am Ende des Tunnels (PhD-thesis 1998)) - K. Grewe
  • Hodge 1992 / 2002 : Roman aqueducts and Water supply - A.Th. Hodge
  • Hodge 2000 : Qanats (in: O. Wikander (ed): Handbook of ancient water technology pag 35 - 38) - A.Th. Hodge
  • Humlum1965 : Underjordiske vandingskanaler, Kareze, qanat, Foggara - J. Humlum
  • Hussain 2008 : Revitalizing a traditional dryland water supply system: the karezes in Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (in: Water International vol 33-3 (2008) pag 333 - 349) - I. Hussain and others
  • Lightfoot 2000 : The origin and diffusion of qanats in Arabia: new evidence from the northern and souther peninsula (in: The Geographical Journal vol 166-3 (2000) - pag 215 - 226) - D.R. Lightfoot
  • Mostafaeipour 2010: Historical background, productivity and technical issues of qanats (in: water history vol 2 (2010) pag 61 - 80) - A. Mostafaeipour
  • Motiee 2006 : Assessment of the contributions of traditional qanats in sustainable water resources management (in: Water resources development vol 22-4 (2006) pag 575 - 588) - H. Motiee and others
  • NN 20xx : Qanats (from: www.waterhistory.org) - NN
  • Pearse 1973 : Qanats in the old world: horizontal wells in the new (in: journal of range management vol 26-5 (1973) pag 320 - 321) - C.K. Pearse
  • Pearce 2004 : The last of a dying breed (in: Keepers of the spring pag 125 - 149) - F. Pearce
  • Semsar 2012 : Qanats in its Cradle - A.A. Semsar Yazdi and M.L. Khaneiki (eds)
  • Weingarten 2007 : Water supply by qanats, a contribution to water shortage in Mediterranean areas? (in: Proceedings of the 10th intern. conf. on environmental Science and Technology, Greece (2007) pag A-1555 - 1561) - H. Weingarten
  • Wessels 2014 : Qanats and water cooperation for a sustainable future (from the website of the Middle east Institute) - J.I. Wessels
  • Wulff 1968 : The qanats of Iran (in: Scientific American vol 218-4 (1968) pag 94 - 105) - H.W. Wulff

    Karaji

  • Abattouy 2009 : Mahummad Al-Karaji: a mathematician engineer from the early 11th century (from: www.muslimheratage.com) - M. Abattouy
  • Kowsar 2012 : Karaji, mathematician and qanat master (in: Gound water vol 50-5 (2012) oag 812 - 817) - S.A. Kowsar
  • Malekian 2001 : Alkaraji, an Iranian great hydrologist in the IXth century (in: colloquium proceedings "Origines et histoire de l'Hdrology 2001)" - A. Malekian and M.J. Pouraghniaei

    Afghanistan

  • Shobair 2012 : (qanats in) Afghanistan (in: Semsar 2012 pag 21 - 42) - S.S. Shobair

    Azerbaijan

  • Semsar 2012b : (qanats in) Azerbaijan (in: Semsar 2012 pag 43 - 74) - A.A. Semsar Yazdi and M.L. Khaneiki

    Belgium

    China

  • Abudu 2011 : Vitality of ancient karez systems in arid lands: a case study in Turpan region of China (in: Water History vol 3 (2011) pag 213 - 225) - S. Abudu and others
  • Endreny 2009 : Ancient eco-thenology of qanats for engineering a sustainable water supply in the Mediterranean island of Cyprus (in: Environmental Geology vol 57 (2009) pag 249 - 257) - T.A. Endreny and H. Gokcekus
  • Hansen 20xx : Karez (qanats) of Turpan, China (from: www.waterhistory.org) - R.D. Hansen
  • Lein 2006 : The disappearance of the karez of Turfan (in: Acta Geographica - Trondheim series A nr 15 (2006) pag 1 - 18) - H. Lein and S. Yuling
  • Sohma 2011 : Underground irrigation canals in the arid regions through the high-resolution satellite images and field works (in: Journal of Arid Land Studies vol 21-2 (2011) pag 75 - 79) - H. Sohma and H. Wushiki

    Croatia

  • Bozic 2004 : "Talijanova Buza", old roman underground aqueduct on the island of Pag (Croatia) (in: FG 2004 pag 27 - 38) - V. Bozic

    Cyprus

  • Endreny 2009 : Ancient eco-technology of qanats for engineering a sustainable water supply in the Mediterranean island of Cyprus (in Environmental geology vol 57 (2009) pag 249 - 257) - T.A. Endrendy and H. Gokcekus
  • Kambanellas 2012: Historical development of water supply in Cyprus (in: A.N. Angelakis ... (eds) Evolution of water supply through the millennia, 2012) - C.A. Kambanellas
  • Lightfoot 2008 : The chain of wells of Cyprus: History, Ecology and Contemporary use (poster 2008) - D. Lightfoot

    Egypt

  • Gonon 2004 : Les qanats d'Ayn Manawir (Oasis de Kharga, Egypte) (in: FG 2004 pag 39 - 58) - T. Gonon
  • Wuttmann 2000 : The qanats of 'Ayn-Manawir (Kharga oasis, Egypt) (in: Journal of Achaemenid studies and researchers (Jasr) vol 1-1 (2000) pag ... ) - M. Wuttmann and others

    France

  • Lepretre 2004 : Le tunnel de l'aqueduc romain de Carhaix () (in: FG 2004 pag 143 - 156) - B. Lepretre and A. Provost

    Germany

  • Grewe 1998 : Licht am Ende des Tunnels (PhD-thesis) - K. Grewe
  • Klaubert 1967 : Qanats in an area of Bavaria - Bohemia (in: Geographical Review vol 57 (1967) pag 203 - 212) - H. Klaubert
  • Kremer 2004 : Antike Wassergewinnung an der Mosel (Der römische Qanat von Pölich) (in: FG 2004 pag 127 - 142) - B. Kremer

    Greece

  • Blumenstein 2010 : Qanats between Menikon and Pangeon mountains, a forgotten and endangered resource for local water supply (in: Scientif Annals, School of Geology, Aristole University of Thessaloniki vol 100 (2010) pag 23 - 29) - O. Blumenstein, H. Weingarten, and M. Vavelidis
  • Papanikolaou 2013 : Hortiatis qanat (from the Hydria-project)
  • Vavliakis 1993 : Die aktiven Qanatsysteme in Griechenland. Untersuchungen ... Provinz Phyllis .... (in: Salzburger Geographische Arbeiten, vol 25 (1993) pag 193 - 206) - E. Vavliakis and L. Sotiriadis
  • Voudouris 2013 : Hydrogeological characteristics of hellenistic aqueduct-like Qanats (in: Water, vol 5 (2013) pag 1326 - 1345) - K.S. Voudouris and others

    Iran

  • Ahmadi 2010 : The qanat: a living history in Iran (in: G. Schneider-Madames and M.-F. Courel (eds) Water and sustainability in arid regions (2010) pag 125 - 138) - H. Ahmadi
  • Bahadori 1978 : Passive cooling systems in Iranian architecture (in: Scientific American vol 238-2 (1978) pag 144 - 154) - M.N. Bahadori
  • Balali 20xx : Technology and religion, the qanat underground irrigation system (from: www.academia.edu) - M.R. Balali and J. Keulartz
  • Bazzi 2012 : Qanat and its challenges in Ferdow county - Iran (in: International journal of geography and geology vol 1-2 (2012) pag 42 - 51)- K. Bazzi
  • Beaumont 1968 : Qanats on the Varamin plan, Iran (in: Transactions of the Institute of British geographers vol 45 (1968) pag 169 - 179 - P. Beaumont
  • Beaumont 1971 : Qanat systems in Iran (in: Bulletin of the International Association of Scientific hydrology vol 16-1.3 (1971)) pag 39 - 50) - P. Beaumont
  • Beaumont 1974 : Water resources development in Iran (in: The Geographical Journal vol 140-3 (1974) pag 418 - 431) - P. Beaumont
  • Bonine 1982 : From qanat to kort: traditional irrigation terminology and practices in central Iran (in: Iran, journal of the British institute of Persian studies vol 20 (1982) pag 145 - 149) - M.E. Bonine
  • Boustani 2009 : Sustainable water utilization in arid region of Iran by qanats (in: International journal of Human and Social Sciences vol 4-7 (2009) pag 505 - 508) - F. Boustani
  • Braun 1974 : Teheran, Marrakesch und Madrid, Ihre Wasserversorgung mit Hilfe von Qanaten (PhD thesis) - C. Braun
  • Cenesta 2003 : Qanat irrigation systems, an ancient water distribution system ... Iran (Proposal for a candidate of GIAHS) - Centre for sustainable development (Cenesta, Iran)
  • English 1997 : Qanats and life worlds in Iranian Plateau Villages (in: Proceedings of the conference: Transformation of Middle eastern natural environment ..., October 1997 pag 187 - 2005) - P.W. English
  • Ghobani 2007 : Glance at historical qanats in Iran with an emphasis on Vazvan qanat in Isfahan (in: IRNCID-ICID International history seminar on irrigation and drainage (2007) pag 165 - 172) - B. Ghobani
  • Jomehpour 2009 : Qanat irrigation systems as important and ingenious agricultural heritage: a case study of the qanats of Kashan, Iran (in: Enternational Journal of Environmental Studies vol 66-3, June 2009) pag 297 - 315) - M. Jomehpour
  • Kuros 2007 : Qanat (Karez) (in: Water and irrigation techniques in ancient Iran (IRNCID-report) pag 143 - 175) - G.R. Kuros and M.L. Khaneiki
  • Magee : The chronology and environmental background of iron age settlement in southeastern Iran and the question of the origin of the qanat irrigation system (Iranica Antiqua vol 40 (2005) pag 217 - 231) - P. Magee
  • Saeidian 2013 : Qanat, traditional irrigation infrastructure system in Iran (from: Elixir Sustainable Architecture vol 55 (23013) pag 12743 - 12747) - A. Saeidian
  • Salih 2006 : Qanats a unique ground water management tool in arid regions: the case of Bam region in Iran (in: proceeding of the International symposium on groundwater sustainability (2006) pag 79 ff) - A. Salih
  • Schram2016 : Qanats, the mother of all aqueducts? (forthcomming) - W.D. Schram
  • Semsar Yazdi 2012c: (qanats in) Iran (in: Semsar 2012 pag 75 - 148) - A.A. Semsar Yazdi and M.L. Khaneiki
  • Yazdani 2006 : Application of underground dams for groundwater aquifer recharge and control of qanat water (in: Proceedings of the conference 'Climate change and the Middle East' (2006) pag 432 - 439) - M.R. Yazdani and others

    Iraq

  • Lightfoot 2009 : Survey of infiltration karez in northern Iraq: history and current status of underground aqueducts (a report prepared for Unesco, see the web) - D.R. Lightfoot
  • Lightfoot 2012 : (karez in Northern) Iraq (in: Semsar 2012 pag 149 - 190; rework of Lightfoot 2009) - D. Lightfoot

    Israel

  • Evenari 1971 : The Negev, the challenge of a desert (chapter XI) - M. Evenari and others
  • Ron 1985 : Development and management of irrigation systems in mountain regions of the Holy Land (in: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers vol 10 (1985) pag 149 - 169) - Z.Y.D. Ron [+ comment by Rowley and response in 1986]
  • Rowley 1986 : Irrigation systems in the Holey Land: a comment (in: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers vol 11-3 (1986) pag 356 - 359) - G. Rowley [followed by a response of Ron]

    Italy

  • Di Piazza 2008 : Palermo, citta d'acqua, aspetti storici e naturalistici dell'acqua - M. di Piazza
  • Judson 1963 : Underground drainageways in Southern Etruria and Northern Latium (in: Papers of the Britsh School at Rome vol 31 (1963) pag 74 - 99) - S. Judson and E. Kahane
  • Lofrano 2013 : Water collection and distribution systems in the Palermo plain during the middle ages (in: Water vol 5 (2013) pag 1662 - 1676 Open Access) - G. Lofrano and others
  • Trabia 20xx : Kanats of Sicily (from the web 20xx) - C. Trabia

    Jordan

  • Lightfoot 1997 : Qanats in the Levant: hydraulic technology at the periphery of early empires (in: Technology and Culture vol 38-2 (1997) pag 432 - 451) - D.R. Lightfoot
  • Lightfoot20xx : Jordanian qanat Romani (from: www.waterhistory.org) - D.R. Lightfoot
  • Van Nieuwkoop 2013: Verborgen water in een zee van zand (in Dutch) (Bachelor thesis) - M. van Nieuwkoop

    Libya / Northern Africa

  • Wilson 2004 : Foggara irrigation and early state formation in the Libyan Sahara: the Garamantes of Fazzan (in: FG 2004 pag 223 - 243) - A. Wilson
  • Wilson 2009 : Foggaras in ancient North Africa (in: Controle et distribution de l'eau dans le Magreb antique et Medieval, Collection de l'ecole Francaise vol 426 (2009) pag 19 - 39) - A. Wilson

    Luxembourg

  • Kayser 2004 : Die unterirdische Wasserleitung der Raschpetzer, ein Monument antiker Ingenieurbaukunst aud Luxembourg (in: FG 2004 pag 277 - 292) - P. Kayser and G. Waringo

    Malta

  • Buhagiar 2007 : Water management strategies and the cave-dwelling phenomenon in late-medieval Malta (in: Medieval Archaeology vol 51 (2007) pag 103 ff) - K. Buhagiar
  • Teuma 2003 / 2012

    Maroc

  • Ben Brahim 2004 : Les khettaras (qanat) du Tafilalet (SE Maroc): passé, présent et future (in: FG 2004 pag 99 - 124)) - M. Ben Brahim
  • Braun 1974 : Teheran, Marrakesch und Madrid, Ihre Wasserversorgung mit Hilfe von Qanaten (PhD thesis) - C. Braun
  • Lightfoot 1996b : Moroccan Khetarra: traditional irrigation and progressive desiccation (in: Geoforum vol 27-2 (1996) pag 261 - 273) - D.R. Lightfoot
  • Lightfoot 1996c : Moroccan Khettara (from: www.waterhistory.org) - D.R. Lightfoot
  • Salesse 2004 : Techniques de creusement de galeries de captage: l'exemple des khettaras de Tamesloht (Maroc) (in: FG 2004 pag 59 - 60) - E. Salesse and C. de Basto

    Oman

  • Al-Ghafri 2012 : (falaj in the) Sultanate of Oman (in: Semsar 2012 pag 191 - 274) - A. Al-Ghafri
  • Weisberger 2004 : The impact of the dynamics of qanats and aflaj on oases in Oman - comparisons with Iran and Bahrain (in FG 2004 pag 61 - 98) - G. Weisberger

    Pakistan

  • Kahlown 2012 : (Qanats in Baluchistan /) Pakistan (in: Semsar 2012 pag 275 - 344) - M.A. Kahlown
  • Khan 1995 : Karez irrigation in Pakistan (in: GeoJournal vol 37-1 (1995) pag 91 - 100) - M.F.K. Khan and M. Nawaz
  • Rahman 1981 : Ecology of Karez Irrigation: a case of Pakistan (GeoJournal vol 5-1 (1981) pag 7 - 15) - M. Rahman
  • Scholz 1972 : Die physisch- und sozialgeographischen Ursachen fur die Aufgabe und den Erhalt der Kareze in Belutschistan (in: De Erde, vol 103 (1972) pag 302 - 315) - F. Scholz

    Saudi-Arabia

    Spain

  • Braun 1974 : Teheran, Marrakesch und Madrid, Ihre Wasserversorgung mit Hilfe von Qanaten (PhD thesis) - C. Braun
  • Butzer1985 : Irrigation agrosystems in eastern Spain: Roman or Islamic origins? (in: Annals of the association of American geographers vol 75-4 (1985) pag 479 - 509) - K.W. Butzer and others
  • De Bustamante 2004 : Some examples of Spanish qanats (in: FG 2004 pag 187 - 207): I. de Bustamante and J.M. Sanz
  • Kirchner 2004 : La datation des qanats et des espaces irrigués dans les Iles Orientales d'al-Andalus (Baléares, Espagne) (in: FG 2004, pag 187 - 206) - H. Kirchner
  • Martinez-Santos 2012: A brief historical account of Madrid's qanats (in: Ground Water vol 50-4 (2012) pag 645 - 653) - P. Martinez-Santos and P.E. Martinez-Alfaro
  • Martinez-Santos 2014: A priori mapping of historical water-supply galleries ... to the Amaniel qanat (Madrid, Spain) (in: Journal of Cultural Heritage vol xx (2014) pag xxx) - P. Martinez-Santos and P. E. Martinez-Alfaro
  • Roth 2000 : Unterirdische Bewasserungssysteme (Qanate) im sudosten Spaniens (Almeria / Murcia) (in: Trierer Geographische Studien vol 23 (2000) pag 83 - 97) - D. Roth and B. Schutt
  • Troll1972 : Madrid, die Wasserversorgung der Stadt duch Qanaten im laufe der Geschichte (book; also in: Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse 1972-5 pag 107 - 190) - C. Troll and C. Braun
  • Wilson 2004 : Classical water technology in the early Islamic world (in: C. Bruun (ed): Technology, Ideology, Water vol 31 AIRF (2004) pag 116 - 141) - A.I. Wilson

    Syria

  • Lightfoot 1996a : Syrian Qanat Romani (from: www.waterhistory.org) - D.R. Lightfoot
  • Van Nieuwkoop 2013: Verborgen water in een zee van zand (in Dutch) (Bachelor thesis) - M. van Nieuwkoop
  • Wessels 2004 : Criteria for renovating and using ancient qanats in Syria - a case study (in: FG 2004, pag 249 - 262) - J. Wessels
  • Wessels 2008 : To cooperate or not to cooperate... ? Collective action for rehabilitation of traditional water tunnel systems (qanats) in Syria (PhD-thesis) - J.I. Wessels
  • Wessels 2013 : Renovation of qanats in Syria (from www.history.org) - J. Wessels and R.J.A. Hoogeveen

    Turkey

  • Ozis 2004 : Tunnelstrecken in Qanatbauweise, der Kenchios - (Degirmendere) - Fernwasserleitung nach Ephesus (in: FG 2004 pag 293 - 300) - U. Ozis and others