Samos Eupalinos

N-side and tunnel

Overview of the trace of the aqueduct in and around Mount Kastro (237,5 m), N of ancient Samos. The tunnel was dug by prisoners from the neighboring island of Lesbos. Its orientation is mainly north - south, and almost in a straight line, apart from some sinuous parts in the central area. An alternative must have been viable, and would have taken 1990 m in cut and cover technique in stead of 1030 m digging a tunnel. See also the drawing (Β = north)

From Source to Destination (m)
Π - Ν 853 m (from source to the north entrance)
Ν - S 1030 m (measured in straight line)
Ν - S 1050 m (measured in the actual tunnel)
S - Ω 400 m (from the south entrance to the last known cistern)