Aqueduct News: News about Roman Aqueduct Studies

Suggestions for new items, please send to W.D.Schram 'at'
Last modified: March, 2020

Aqueduct News is part of an elaborate website dedicated to Roman aqueducts.
Its web-address:

March, 2020: Roman bathing in Coriovallum (NL) (book)

The thermae of Coriovallum (Heerlen, The Netherlands) revisited. A new publication - in English - presents a renewed historical image of an important place. The bathhouse itself, built by the military in 63-73, became more and more imposing over time. At its summit there was a facade of no less than 48 meters with a height of 8 to 10 meters with a swimming pool. It became an important meeting place for civilians and military personnel from all over the region.
Until recently it was thought that the bathhouse was built at the beginning of the second century, now it is certain that it was built in the first century of our era. Around the year zero there was habitation anyway.

Over 25 researchers contributed to this book. Dr. Gemma (C.M.) Janssen wrote the chapter on the water supply. Background reports - many in Dutch - are also downloadable from the same website of the museum.

Price: € 25,- plus postage, to be ordered via
The book is also available - free of charge - as an e-book, see the link "download" on the website behind the 'source' below.


March, 2020: Hiking trail along the aqueduct of Köln (Cologne, Germany) (tourism)

The Eifelsteig is a 115 km long Roman Canal hiking trail from Nettersheim to Cologne (Germany) and one of the most successful trails in the Eifel. Here you can 'understand' with your feet what a great technical feat the Roman engineers have achieved to supply the provincial capital of Lower Germania with 20,000 m3 of the best drinking water every day. For its 25th birthday in 2012, the hiking trail was completely redecorated and now, after the opening of the Römerkanal information center in 2019 in Rheinbach, it is an expanded tourist attraction for the whole region. Here a unique opportunity has been created to familiarize yourself with Roman technology: the Roman Canal Hiking Trail shows visitors what the Roman engineers did, and the Roman Canal Information Center shows how the Romans did it. Both together impressively show 'How the water learned to walk'!
With this excursion - from June 5 - 7 - we will show you where to find the Roman aqueduct and visit the Roman Canal Info Center in Rheinbach, which opened in September 2019.

For more details, see the links (all in German).

Info center Rheinbach and folder

March, 2020: Late Roman aqueducts in Spain (thesis and book)

Despite the recent interest in late antique archaeology and the increasing number of publications on the transformations of towns (both in Spain and in the Roman world as a whole), the concern shown towards aqueducts has been almost non-existent. Some studies have focused on exceptional local examples, such as Rome or Constantinople, but there have been neither general nor regional syntheses of the chronology of the abandonment of aqueducts on a broad regional scale.
Both publications consequently fills this gap in our knowledge by offering an all-encompassing study and compilation of the available material and written evidence for aqueducts in Spain in Late Antiquity, it looks at aqueducts in the late Roman period, and how they evolve through the Visigothic and the Umayyad centuries. For this purpose, each aqueduct in the Iberian Peninsula is assessed according to the available information and studied in its wider urban context.

J. Martinez Jimenez finished his PhD in 2013 in Oxford: Aqueducts and water supply in the towns of post-Roman Spain.
Now a reworked and enriched version is published as a book: Aqueducts and urbanism in post-Roman Hispania.

PhD-thesis (2013)
Book (2019)

February, 2020: Visit to the aqueduct remains of Besancon (France) (tourism)

Although located in a loop of the river Doubs, the city of Besancon nevertheless experienced many difficulties in its supply of drinking water during the two millennia which preceded. It was in the 1st century, under the reign of the emperoro Vespasian, that a 10 km long water supply structure was built, making it possible to channel Arcier's water to the center of Vesontio, present Besancon (France), 150 km north of Geneva. Despite the multiple water resources available around Besancon, Arcier springs were chosen because of their altitude and capacity.
The work was ruined in the 5th century and it was not until 1854 that the sources of Arcier were used again. They will provide most of the water supply for Besancon for more than a century.

You can pay a visit to the remains, on March 6, April 3, and May 4, 2020. Apply via the website below.


January, 2020: New publication Frontinus Society (publication)

In the Schriftenreihe der Frontinus-Gesellschaft (the publication series of the german Frontinus Society) a new volume has been published with as title 'Contributions to water management and history of technology'.
Interesting articles in this volume 31 (215 pages):
* Fill and chronology in ancient Greek cisterns
* Toilets in Xanten (in German)
* The ancient water mills in the Caracalla-baths in Rome (in German)
* Water mills in the Degirmendere aqueduct of Ephesus (in German)
Price: € 25 (for members € 20) plus postage


January, 2020: Cleaning Rome's Aqueduct Park (miscellaneous)

Pliny the Elder speaks in his Natural History (36.123) with emphasis: "If anyone were to give due and close attention to the abundance of waters for public use (in baths, pools, canals, households, parks, suburban estates), the distance from which the water is brought, the lofty arches, the tunnels through mountains, the bridges across valleys, he would confess that there is no sight more marvelous in the entire world."
Translation by R. Rodgers (2004).

But in fact, for many years, they were abandoned and turned into a makeshift dump, also in the Aqueduct Park SE of Rome. That is until local retirees decided to roll up their sleeves and do something about it, even if that meant bending a few rules.
NPR made a report, which was re-broadcasted on local radio stations in the US, like WJCT did early January, see the link below.


December, 2019: Forgeries with inscriptions (Evora, Portugal) (miscellaneous)

Many cities in Europe are proud on their Roman background. But what to do when clear clues are doubtful? Some cities did not hesitate to add some appealing elements to their own history. André de Resende (ca. 1500 - 1572) was a Portuguese Latinist and admirer of ancient Rome, investing much time in 'discovering' of the Roman legacy in his hometown Evora, 110 km east of Lisbon (Portugal).
An inscription mentioning Sertorius was found near the remains of a Roman baths complex and by De Resende linked to the famous general Sertorius. He made him resident of Evora and credited Sertorius with the construction of several urban infrastructural works, including the aqueduct. Already in the 19th c. was proven that an earlier inscription linking Sertorius to an aqueduct, was a forgery.

For this and other doubtful assignments, see the article of dr. N. Senos: "An appropriate past for Renaissance Portugal: Andre de Resende and the city of Evora" (in: N. Senos (ed.) The quest for an appropriate past in literature, art and architecture (2019) pag 127 - 150).


December, 2019: Guided walk (16/2/2020) to the aqueduct of Aesica (GB) (excursion)

The Northumberland National Park Authority organises (again) a one-day excursion / guided walk to the aqueductof the Roman fort Great Chesters / Aesica along Hadrian's Wall, now on Sunday February 16, 2020, starting at 10.30h local time from Cawfields, north of Haltwistle (UK).


November, 2019: Frontinus conference September 2021 in Budapest (conference)

The next general conference of the German Frontinus society will be held in Budapest, 16 - 23 November, 2021, with the title 'Bathing culture in Budapest'. As usual, the program will be an interesting mix of lectures and excursions.

For the program, see 'source'


November, 2019: 6th IWA-conference on water in ancient civilisations, April 2020 (conference)

The 6th IWA international symposium on water, wastewater, and environment technologies in ancient civilizations: traditions and culture, will be held at the Bogazici University and in the Conference Hall of the Theological School of Halki in the island of Heybeliada, Istanbul, Turkey, from 28 to 30 April 2020.

The Symposium is co-organized by the Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey and the Hellenic Open University, Patra, Greece, and is dedicated to topics relevant to the water traditions, culture and religions. Information about ancient and traditional methods, practices and techniques of water resources management and sanitation in various civilizations throughout the millennia, focusing on the cultural and socio-economic role of water in the contemporary and ancient times and relation of water to life and death will be presented and discussed.

In the last day (30th of April 2020) of the conference, a workshop relevant to water and religions will be held in the Theological School of Halki in the island of Heybeliada in the Sea of Marmara, Istanbul.

For more information, see website.


October 2019: Acqua Roma conference in Rome, October 15-16, 2019 (conference)

The Swiss Institute in Rome, together with the Zurich Institute of Applied Science, organizes an international conference in Rome, October 15 - 16, 2019, with the title: Acqua Roma - Nourisher of Life and Bearer of Meaning.

"The Istituto Svizzero invites to a reflection about water, focusing on its cultural and scientific significance and the challenges that we face as a society in our use of natural resources. The event articulates itself in two parts: a scientific conference approaching the topic from different angles is complemented with a water treatment system - designed and constructed by the Zurich University of Applied Sciences - that provides insight into the process of turning grey water into quality-controlled drinking water."

For the program and other details, see the web source.


October, 2019: Gilbert Wiplinger (Frontinus Society) lectures in Leiden (NL) on 26/11/2019 (lecture)

On Tuesday November 26 Gilbert Wiplinger (board of the Frontinus-Gesellschaft) will give a lecture on the Degirmendere aqueduct of Ephesus, on Tuesday night, November 26, 2019. Venue: 20.00h, central hall of the Dutch National Museum of Antiquities, Rapenburg 28, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Wiplinger is researcher and author of a double volume book on the Degirmendere aqueduct of Ephesus.

From the announcement:
"The development of the city of Ephesus is reflected in its water supply. When Lysimachus built the city on a new site at the beginning of the 3rd century BCE, a simple clay pipe line from a nearby spring was sufficient. It was not until the city's heyday in the first quarter of the 2nd century CE that channels were built under Trajan and Hadrian in order to supply large quantities of water from springs further away to the rapidly growing population with their luxurious baths, magnificent fountains and well equipped houses.

The exploration of the 36.5 km long Degirmendere aqueduct was a special challenge. Water was transported over 24 bridges and through four tunnels. The first channel was constructed in Hadrian times and allowed to transport a water volume of 21,000 m3 per day. After 30 - 35 years of operation, the small channel was torn apart by 3 m during an earthquake. This necessitated the construction of a new aqueduct at the end of the Antonine period. This aqueduct was given a larger cross-section and thus 50,000 m3 per day could be transported into the city. During its operating time up to the third quarter of the 4th century CE, many repairs were necessary, especially on the steep slopes and in the extremely flat channel. On the one hand, the slope pressure was absorbed by supporting buttress pillars attached to the channel, and on the other hand, many bypasses were necessary to avoid overflows.
The results of this new research are manifold and fascinating

Do not forget to apply!


October, 2019: Honorary colloquium November 8, 2019 in Braunschweig (Germany) (colloquium)

On February 25, 2019 prof. dr. G. Garbrecht passed away. The Leichtweiss-Institut für Wasserbau (LWI) and the DWhG organise an honorary scientific colloquium on November 8, 2019, which will start at 13.30 h in the Architekturpavillon, Pockelstrasse 4, Braunschweig (Germany).

This colloquium - which bears as title Pre-historic and antique hydraulic engineering - will be chaired by prof. dr. Aberle of the T.U. Braunschweig, who also presents the first lecture. Other speakers: prof. dr. H. Fahlbusch, prof. dr. H. Wittenberg, dr. A. Androvitsanea, dr. K. Wellbrock and prof. dr. W. Brinker. At 17.30h dr. Aberle will summarize the results of the colloquium.

From 11.00h prof. dr. Aberle and prof. dr. H. Diestel offer you a view into the laboratories of the Leichtweiss-Institute and an exhibition Climate diversity and bio-diversity. Venue: the Leichtweiss Institute, Beethovenstrasse 51a, Braunschweig.

Many, if not all, presentations will be in German. Please apply (see source link).


September, 2019: Opening aqueduct information center in Rheinbach (Germany) (tourism)

The Roman aqueduct, from the main source Grüner Pütz at Nettersheim in the Eifel to the Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (CCAA), supplied Roman Cologne from about 80/90 CE, during about 200 years, with fresh water. The Roman hydraulic engineers overcame all terrain obstacles with the 95 km long slope line and created an engineering and building masterpiece. Along the very well-researched and partially restored canal route runs the approximately 116 km long Roman Canal Hiking Trail to Cologne-Sülz. More than 50 panels on the trail provide exciting information on sections and attractions in the area.

The city of Rheinbach (15 km SW of Bonn, Germany), one of the twelve municipalities located along the Roman Canal Hiking Trail, together with the Rheinland Naturpark Rheinland and the Freundeskreis Römerkanal e.V., with the participation of the other neighboring communities, created an information center with the presentation 'Water for Rome's Cities' at the Himmeroder Hof in the heart of the city of Rheinbach. It offers lectures, guided tours and events around the Romans and their hydraulic engineering and is a contact point for visiting the Roman Canal.
On the website various locations and long-distance hikes can be viewed and at will booked as packages. They include e.g. expert guided tours, accommodation, meals and luggage transfer in cooperation with the catering and overnight accommodations as well as for tourist groups along the trail. This makes it even easier to explore the uniqueness of the structure and the various regions crossed by the Roman Canal.


September, 2019: Danish magazine 'Historie' on Roman aqueducts ()

Issue 13 of 2019 (22/8 - 11/9) of the Danish magazine for popular science, Historie, presented 12 pages of attractive images and interesting stories about Roman aqueducts and bathing facilities.

From the introduction:
Everyone would like to have a Roman aqueduct: WATER GAVE ROME POWER.
The Romans conquered antiquity's greatest kingdoms with weapons, but it were their aqueducts that made the force to recognize the greatness of the empire. The gigantic structures were a miracle that brought cool, clean water into the cities where grateful residents could enjoy splashing fountains, water arts and huge bathing facilities.


August, 2019: Wiplinger's book on the Degirmendere aqueduct of Ephesus (publication)

Ephesus' Degirmendere aqueduct is the longest (36,5 km) and youngest of the six long-distance aqueducts that brought spring water to the metropolis of the Roman province of Asia. It is a gravitational pipeline that has run all the valleys, passed over 24 bridges and through four tunnels.
Due to the enormous expansion of the development in the tourist town of Kusadasi, the expansion of roads and intensive agricultural use of the environment, this structure is extremely endangered. Therefore, it was selected to be worked in detail as the first water channel.
Dipl. Ing. Gilbert Wiplinger was the head of this multi-year excavation project, supported by a series of other scholars. Recently he finished a two-volume report which is published as supplement volume 4 of the Frontinus Gesellschaft and supplement volume 32 of BaBesch.
To be ordered by the Frontinus-Gesellschaft (member-price: € 79; otherwise € 172; plus postage).


July, 2019: New website of the German Frontinus Society (website)

The German Frontinus Society (Frontinus-Gesellschaft) - one of the two German groups of people interested in Roman water works - has a new website, see the web.


July, 2019: Submissions for a special issue of the e-journal 'Water' (journal)

One of the future issues of the e-journal 'Water' will be devoted to water supply and water scarity. The three guest editors, dr. Vasileios Tzanakakis, assoc. prof. dr. Nikos Paranychianakis, and dr. Andreas N. Angelakis, invite you to submit an article, of course within the framework of this Special Issue, as presented on the relevant webpage of this journal.
Deadline for submissions: February 29, 2020.


July, 2019: Pay a visit to the Gier aqueduct of Lyon (France) (tourism)

You are invited for a walk along a part of the Gier aqueduct of Lyon (France) on Friday night 26th of July, starting in Mornant, and learn more about the longest of the four aqueducts of Roman Lyon, and about their inverted siphons!
Do not forget to apply!

The visit will begin with the Mornantet bridge. With the view into the channel, you will discover how the Romans built the shafts and tunnels that crossed the village. About 86 km long, the Roman Gier aqueduct is the longest aqueduct bringing water into the capital of the three Gauls: 'Lugdunum'. It captured spring water in the Pilat Massif at 405 meters altitude to bring water to the heights of the Fourvière hill in Lyon. Because of the landscape a sinuosity course was necessary including the use of different types of structures like bridges to cross valleys, underground tunnels as we will see later, and bridge-siphons to cross deep valleys.

The Mornantet bridge made it possible to cross the valley of the Mornantet. This bridge has a length of 60 meters and a maximum height of nearly 12 meters; it had 8 or 9 arches. The remains preserved on the left bank of the stream include a complete arch, a bridge pillar, and an underground passage taking a 60° turn towards the southeast, to find the other side of the stream.


June, 2019: Symposium Archaeology and Water from June 8 - 10, Avila, Spain (congress)

The 30th edition of the UNED Cursos de Verano is dedicated to archaeology and Water. Its titel: 'Arqueologia del Agua: El ciclo urbano del agua en la Hispania romana'. This short summer course will take place from July 8 - 10, 2019 at UNED, Avila, Spain (100 km west of Madrid).

For more information: contact UNED.
For the program and speakers, see the website.


May, 2019: Sixth congress on Roman hydraulic engineering - November, 2019 (Spain) (congress)

Fundacion de la Ingenieria Tecnica de Obras Publicas choose as venue the city of Santo Domingo de la Calzada (La Rioja, Spain), that this year celebrates the millennium of the birth of Domingo Garcia, patron saint of civil engineers. Congress data: November 7 - 9, 2019.

You may expect interesting presentation on siphons, pre-classical hydraulic engineering, the use of LIDAR elevation maps, Roman gold mining, and on archaeology of calcareous concretion.

Local exhibits: videos with infographics about Roman Engineering, chapters of the Roman Engineering Documentary Series on television, and reproductions of topographic materials used in roman Engineering. Posters and papers are most welcome and will be published in the proceedings.

For more information, contact Isaac Moreno Gallo (Zaragoza).


April, 2019: Water and Culture, mini-symposium in Rome (April 18, 2019) (symposium)

On Thursday April 18, 19 a mini-symposium will take place in the American Academy in Rome, under the title 'Water and Culture: a view of Rome'.

From the website: The conference is structured around a series of six papers and a panel discussion. The papers take a historical approach and deal with the way in which the control of water has shaped culture in Rome and central Italy from the Roman Empire to the 20th century. Then using the past as a springboard to the future, the discussion panel will address current and future opportunities in water management, especially in the United States and Italy, and brainstorm on innovative ways of confronting them.


March, 2019: Prof.dr. Günther Garbrecht passed away (demise)

On February 25, 2019 prof.dr. Günther Garbrecht passed away in the age of 94 years. After the Second World War Garbrecht got his 'master' degree at the Technical University of Karlsruhe. After his doctorate diploma he got jobs in Istanbul and Ankara. After a short stop in Zambia he was appointed as professor at the Leichtweiss Institute of the Technical University of Braunschweig.
Here he initiated many new projects, the results of which were often published in the Mitteilungen series of this institute. He was involved in studies in Pergamon, Sudd el Kafara, Resafa, Jericho, and Rome (Baths of Caracalla). His last project was in Turkey again: the Urartu-study; the results were published in volume 5 of the Deutsch Wasser historisch Gesellschaft (DWhG) of which he also was a honorary member.
Garbrecht was also active in international spheres, was promotor of 18 PhD-students and inspired many other students and scholars within en outside academia.

Two supplementary remarks:
- Due to the family circumstances there will be no public funeral ceremony. However, it is planned that the Leichtweiss-Institut für Wasserbau (LWI) and the DWhG will hold an honorary scientific colloquium on November 8, 2019. The next speakers are invited to give a lecture: prof.dr. H. Fahlbusch, prof. dr. W. Mertens, prof. dr. H. Wittenberg, dr A. Androvitsanea, dr. K. Wellbrock and dr. W. Brinker.
More details will be announced in short time.
- Many articles of prof. Garbrecht were published in the Mitteilungen aus dem Leichtweiss-Institut für Wasserbau, Volumes 37, 44, 46, 60, 81, 91, 100, 107, 115 and 118.


March, 2019: "Evolution of water supply throughout the millennia" now as an e-book (literature)

In 2012 the IWA (International Water Association) published the book "Evolution of water supply throughout the millennia", edited by A.N. Angelakis, L.W. mays, D. Koutsoyiannis and D. Mamassis.
Apart from the well-known subjects as the evolution of the water supply in ancient Greek and Roman spheres, this book also pays attention to historical developments in Persia/Iran, Egypt, Israel, Peru, Mexico, and China.

This book - over 550 pages - is now available as an e-book in Open-Access edition.


February, 2019: Part 2 of the documentary film Acueductos Romanos on Spanish TV (education)

The La2 channel of the Spanish TVe network added two new episodes to the TV-series Ingenieria Romana amoung which part two of the subseries Acueductos, presented by Isaac Moreno Gallo. The latter is broadcasted on February 14, 2019 at 22.00h, channel La2 of TVe in Spain.
These films - almost of 1 hour in length - are beautiful designed and equipped all kinds of advanced features.
Both parts are already available on the internet and there exists plans to translate and export these episodes to other countries.

Moreno Gallo is the central person of the informative website and a related Facebook page, see the links below.

* Acueductos Romanos part 1 and part 2
* Website Traianvs
* Facebook page Traianvs


February, 2019: Walk along the Roman aqueduct in Brey (Germany; April 28, 2019) (tourism)

Next April 28, one can enjoy a 4 hours hike along the aqueduct of Brey (Germany), under the title: Auf den Spuren der Römer am Rheingoldbogen (In the footsteps of the Romans on the 'Rhine Gold Arch'). The aqueduct is located on the varied 'Rheingoldbogen' with a view on the picturesque Marksburg.
Here you can discover how the Romans have transported water.
Price: € 15,- For more details, see link.


February, 2019: 3rd International Speleology Congress in Dobrich, Bulgaria (congress)

Hypogea 2019 is the name of the third international congress of speleology in artificial cavities, held from May 20 - 25, 2019 in Dobrich, Bulgaria. Points of interest (amoung others): mines and quarries, catchments and qanats.
The program includes several excursions; on May 26 there is even an post-congress excursion, see the registration form of Hypogea 2019.


January, 2019: Anger over Segovia's 'friendly' devil (Spain) (tourism)

The actions of a group of residents in the city of Segovia have prompted a judge to halt the installation of the image of Mephistopheles, which was designed to appeal to tourists. According to an old story, the aqueduct bridge was not built by the Romans, but by Mephistopheles himself, having been swindled by a young Segovian to raise the aqueduct in a single night.
In order to convey this story to the more than 800,000 tourists who visit the city every year, the local council has decided to erect a statue of a devil there. But the move has brought controversy with it: the complaints from local residents have seen the installation work halted by a judge.


January, 2019: Research on qanats in Spain (article)

In the most recent issue of 'Water History' an article of research groups of the universities of Murcia and Valencia (Spain) on what they call qanats in Spain, written by Ramon Martinez-Medina, Encarnacion Gil-Meseguer, and Jose Maria Gomez-Espin.

From the abstract:
"Different types of drainage galleries exist in Spain: mina de agua, qanat, cimbra or tajea and galleries associated with a groundwater dam (buried in the bed of the channel to stop sub-surface circulation). A qanat is a type of drainage gallery located in the foothills where groundwater is captured. Qanats, also called galerias con lumbreras, minados con espejuelos, viajes de agua, or alcavons in Spain, can be seen as models for sustainable use of water in arid and semi-arid environments".
Including a nice overview.


January, 2019: The 17th stage of the Tour du France starts near the Pont du Gard (France)(tourism)

The 17th stage of the Tour du France (cycling) is a 206 km long race from the Pont du Gard (bridge of the Roman aqueduct of Nimes, France) to Gap.

This ancient monument crosses the Gardon river 25 km NE of Nîmes. The route moves trough the Rhone valley and visits also the famous theater of Orange before continuing to Vaison-la-Romaine.


December 2018: Rehabilitation project at Gadara-Umm Qais (Jordan) completed (restoration)

The U.S. Embassy in Amman announced the completion of a project funded by the (AFCP (the U.S. Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation) that has conserved and rehabilitated the Roman aqueduct of Gadara in Umm Qais. The project, which began in 2015, to better preserve the Roman aqueduct of Gadara in Umm Qais concluded with a ceremony in December, 2018.
"Through our partnership with the Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology of Yarmouk University on this $160,000 grant, this important historical site is better preserved for the people of Jordan and for the many visitors and tourists who will come to marvel at the ingenuity of ancient builders", said an embassy spokeman.
The Roman aqueduct in Umm Qais is one of the largests Roman water system in the world, covering 170 km from Syria to Jordan.


December, 2018: Unesco book: History of Water and Humanity (book)

To assemble, evaluate and promote appropriate examination of water management in history requires a bold and global initiative. To this end, the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme is pioneering a project to develop a systematic and transcultural interdisciplinary knowledge base.

"Water History and Humanity, history of water and civilization series" explores key issues and cultural developments in humanitys relationships with water in a coherent, historical framework.
The strength of this volume lies in its holistic anthropological approach, which reveals how various cultures have used and conceptualized water across multiple contexts, and how our interactions with water have transformed the way we see ourselves and the world.

Publlication date: late 2019 (please check the webpage of below)


December, 2018: The Roman building site (March 3rd, Maastricht NL) (lecture)

Roman ruins are often difficult to understand. It is the task of archaeologists to reconstruct the buildings and to show how they have been used. But one can also go a step further and examine how the buildings came about. What did the construction site look like? How did the different materials arrive at the right place and at the right time? And perhaps the most interesting: which people were present at the construction site?

An example is the construction of the aqueducts of the Roman metropolis Ephesus (Turkey). The remains, which now lie in deserted valleys, will be brought to life during the lecture by reconstruction of the site.
The speaker worked for years on the aqueducts of Ephesus and also wrote about it.


November, 2018: Aqueduct parts for sale (Cologne, Germany) (remains at stake)

As a supplement to the news item of April, 2017: some 22 pieces of the partly restored aqueduct of Köln / Cologne will be sold a € 10.000,- to interested towns, concerns, associations and individuals who feel a connection to this important Roman monument.


November, 2018: Destructions to the aqueduct of Cartage (Tunisia) (remains at stake)

The National Heritage Institute (INP) of Tunisia denounced the destruction by citizens of part of a Roman aqueduct by a 'municipal excavator', occurred at the city Ameur Mhamedia in the governorate of Ben Arous (Tunis). According to the INP, this monument was built at the same time as the Roman aqueduct of Zaghouan between the years 117 and 138 and is part of one of the oldest historical and architectural vestige of the Roman era.
Note: see also the message in May, 2018.


November, 2018: Free access to the Water Museum in Lisbon (Portugal) (museum)

Only two months left (November and December, 2018) to get free access during the weekends to the Water Museum (Museu da Agua) in Lisbon (Portugal).
This free access during the weekends is because of the 150th anniversary to the Lisbon Water Company EPAL.


October 2018: 5th symposium on (waste) water technologies (September 2019, Amman, Jordan) (symposium)

The IWA announces the "5th International Symposium on Water and Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations: Evolution of Technologies from Prehistory to Modern Times", next year in Amman, Jordan, from 11th to 13th September 2019 at the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

The symposium is dedicated to subjects relevant to the evolution of world's water and waste- and storm- water, since the prehistoric era. This event aims to promote interactions, to motivate discussions and to encourage collaborations among the global community on water resources in the past, present and future.

Information about ancient technologies of water and sanitation in various civilizations, which enhance present sustainable practices and water management, is crucial to develop present and future technologies, according to the organizers.


September, 2018: Searching for the water sources of the Aqua Traiana (Rome) (Master-thesis)

Early 2010 the first reports were published about a fruitful search for sources of the Aqua Traiana of Rome. Now one of the main searchers - Edward J. O'Neill - presents his Master thesis: 'Searching for the spring water sources of the Aqua Traiana' (University of Leicester, August 2018).
Some of his conclusions: Different water supplies around the lake Bracciano were first developed at different times for a variety of different purposes: to supply the baths at Vicarello, for sacred purposes, to supply the now submerged lake-side villas including Domitian's villa, to power grain mills and perhaps also to just irrigate fields. O'Neill thinks that the monumental nymphaea of La Fiora and La Carestia and almost certainly some others in Vicarello or upstream along Fosso della Calandrina may have been built first.
The quantities of water available were copious and large teams of builders could have been employed to complete the work as quickly as possible.

With his war booty from a decade of battles with the Dacians, Trajan's engineers took advantage of water supplies already flowing from La Fiora, from Sorgente Elisa and from Fonte Ceraso which had previously been supplying lakeside villas and baths and gathered them into the new aqueduct system to which he lent his name.

New sources were added at Pisciarelli, and new bridges were built to make the aqueduct more reliable, but after studying the Aqua Traiana since 2008, is that it is most likely to be a system aggregated from existing smaller systems.


September, 2018: Guided Tour in Windisch / Vindonissa (N-Switzerland) op 23/9/2018 (tourism)

Within the framework of the European Heritage Days 2018 a guided tour 'Everything flows - The Roman aqueduct of Vindonissa' will be organized in Windisch, 23 September 2018, 14 o'clock.
The communities of Windisch and Hausen (Switzerland) have a special historical treasure: an ancient aqueduct over 2 km long, built by the Romans, renovated by the Habsburgs, and still in use today. This guided tour brings you to familiar and unknown sights and gives you insights in the old structure. Jürgen Trumm, Head of Excavations Vindonissa, Cantonal Archeology Aargau, will be your guide.


September 2018: Guided tour in Brey (Germany) 2/9 and 7/10/2018 (tourism)

In Brey (Germany, 70 km S of Bonn) a significant monument from Roman times is still preserved. Two hiking trails along the cultural route Brey Spay and the dream path Rheingoldbogen lead to the Roman aqueduct. This archaeological gem represents (like similar facilities in Saarbrücken and Düren) the largest ancient tunnel north of the Alps.
This aqueduct can be visited, and you will get the possibility to descend a shaft with a free guided tour from May to October every first Sunday of the month (so: September 2 and October 7, 2018) between 10.00 and 12.00 o'clock.
For more information and application phone (0049) (0)2628-3119. Groups can also register for a guided tour at any time by calling the same number.


August, 2018: Fresh water from Nettersheim-weekend, August 24 - 28 (Germany)(tourism)

The Eifelgemeinde Nettersheim / Archaeology Park orgianizes a 'Fresh water in Nettersheim' -weekend from August, 24 - 28. A refreshing weekend for the thirsty for knowledge with a guided hike in the archaeological landscape park, visiting exciting outcrops of the Eifel aqueduct between Nettersheim and Cologne and a trip to the Roman baths in Zülpich and its museum of bathing culture.
This weekend will be offered including professionally qualified speakers, meals and any applicable transport costs. Price: 290 euros
There is the possibility to sleep in the Youth Hostel in Nettersheim for an extra charge. On request, cozy private accommodation can be organized in Nettersheim or you stay in a Roman style tavern.


July, 2018: Roman aqueduct piano recital in Almunecar (Spain) on July 4th (tourism)

On July 4th, pianist David Gomez will play own work during the Roman aqueduct piano recital on July, 2018, quite close to one of the three 2-piered bridges of the Roman aqueduct of Almunecar (southern Spain).


Research on Punic and Roman water works in Sardinia (Italy) (article + PhD-thesis)

In June 2018 Stefano Cespa wrote about his (PhD-) work on the 'Urban water supply in Punic and Roman Sardinia' (Wiley WIRE's Water 2018:5 e1313): "The purpose of this article is to provide a comparative overview of the most significant urban areas of Sardinia during the Punic and Roman period. The description of water works (wells, cisterns, reservoirs and aqueduct channels), of techniques of water usage, of construction technologies, also with regards on public buildings directly fed by them, will give a comprehensive framework regarding these fundamental types of structures".

This work was based on his PhD-thesis which was focussed on Nora, Sardinia: Water supply systems in Punic-Roman settlements of Sardinia: the case of Nora (original title: Sistemi di approvvigionamento idrico negli insediamenti punico-romani della Sardegna: il caso di Nora) (2014).
For the text of the latter, follow the link.


June, 2018: The scientific director of the DWhG - dr. Chr. Ohlig - passed away (demise)

Christoph Ohlig - who passed away on June 8, 2018 in the age of 71 - was for many years and with great commitment teacher and educator: he taught Latin and religious studies at the Gymnasium in Voerde (Nordrhein-Westfalen, Gemany).
After his premature retirement for health reasons and against his will, his initial hobby soon became serious scientific research on the water supply in ancient Pompeii, which led to his doctorate in classical archaeology at the University of Nijmegen (Netherlands) in 2000.

As long as his progressing incurable disease allowed him, was he active on a voluntary basis in the German Water History Association (DWhG), which he co-founded, and where he edited almost thirty volumes of scientific literature.

But the focus of his love and care were his wife Marlies and his children.


June, 2018: The Gier aqueduct of Lyon supported by Macron's 'Loto du Patrimoine' (fund raising)

This new lottery raises funds for the restoration of important monuments and will be held in September, 2018. It is expected to raise millions of euro's to put towards the restoration and upkeep of emblematic sites across the Frenche country. The famous Aqueduc du Gier (Lyon, France) is on that list.


June, 2018: Pay a visit to the restauration site of the aqueduct of Fréjus (Open Days)

Because of the Days of Archaeology in Fréjus, the general public can pay a visit to the work shop / restoration site of the aqueduct of Frejus, 10 meters above the ground! On June 14 there are still some places left!


May, 2018: Greenland ice reveals Roman economic activities (article)

A year by year economic history of the Roman Empire might seem as impossible to reconstruct as the lost 107 books of Livy's history of Rome. Yet something close to such a record has now been retrieved from the unlikeliest of places - a glacier in central Greenland. The record is written not in Latin but in lead. Lead emissions generated by mining operations in Northern Europe reached Greenland and were washed down in snowfall. The snow accumulated, turned into ice, and preserved a record that stretches back thousands of years.

Ice cores from Greenland have long been used to track global climate change, which is recorded in the frozen water's oxygen isotopes. The project to measure ancient lead emissions in ice cores was initiated by prof. Andrew I. Wilson, an archaeologist at the University of Oxford who studies the Roman economy. A French team tried this in the 1990s but Dr. Wilson believed new technology might allow a more comprehensive approach and reached out to Joseph R. McConnell, a leading expert in ice core analysis at the Desert Research Institute in Reno, Nevada.

Deep Greenland ice cores are hard to obtain because it can take three or four years to drill to bedrock. But dr. McConnell knew of a core that had to be abandoned when the drill got stuck at the 6,500-foot level (2.000 m). Still, the core recorded 40,000 years of annual snowfalls, and the Danish custodians of the core let dr. McConnell's lab use a section of some 1,400 feet from its upper portions, corresponding to the years 1235 BCE to 1257 CE.
(text above: NY-times)

Full text article: J.R. McConnell, A.I. Wilson and others:
Lead pollution recorded in Greenland ice indicates European emissions tracked plagues, wars, and imperial expansion during antiquity
(in: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) vol 115 (May 29, 2018), pag 5726 - 5731)


May, 2018: Remains of the Carthage aqueduct in Tunis threatened (remains at stake)

Inhabitants of the Soukra part of the Dar Fadhal district of Tunis (Tunisia) have sounded the alarm because of illegal dumping of garbage in the protected area around the remains of the well-known Roman aqueduct of Carthage. Soukra is situated in between the city center of Tunis and the classical site of Carthage, very close to the international airport of Tunis.


May, 2018: Memories of water, the Gier aqueduct (Sainte-Foy-les-Lyon, France) (photo exposition)

From June 19 - July 7 the Maison de l'aqueduc (House of the aqueduct) organises a photo exposition of work of Philippe Schuller in Sainte Foy-les-Lyon (France), with as title: Memoire d'eau, l'aqueduc du Gier (Memories of water, the Gier aqueduct).
Philippe Schuller is a professional photographer. At the request of the Gallo-Roman museum in Lyon / Lugdunum, he travelled extensively along the remains of the aqueduct, in all seasons and in all weathers.
Through his work, the photographer invites us to rediscover the places that ancient works still hold in today's landscape.


May, 2018: Proceeding of the symposium '40 years Frontinus Gesellschaft' (proceedings)

From the introduction of the proceedings:
On the occasion of its 40th anniversary, the Frontinus Society organised an international symposium in Trier from 25 to 29 May, 2016 under the title 'Water at the time of Frontinus - Buildings - Technology - Culture' with very interesting excursions to Luxembourg, France and Trier and the surrounding areas.
More than 80 participants from 15 countries worldwide were able to inform themselves about the latest research results through 14 lectures and more than 20 poster presentations.
With a few exceptions, this volume contains all these contributions. The spectrum of topics is very broad, such as questions of water law and legal sources, GPS-supported aqueduct research and new findings on aqueducts, nymphaea and thermal baths.

For a table of content, see also the website of the Frontinus Gesellschaft.


April, 2018: Some 30 m aqueduct found in Munchwilen, canton Aargau (Switzerland, excavations)

In the village of Münchwilen, canton of Aargau, a section of 30 meter of a 1,4 km long Roman aqueduct has been found during excavation work. It was in use during the 1 - 3 c CE and has supplied the 'baths' (more precise: a bathtub with mosaic floor) of a manio or statio (Roman tavern) in Sisseln, which is close to the river Rhine, northern Switzerland.
A part of the aqueduct was already found in 1897, in the same area. In 1916 a second parallel conduit has been found too.


April, 2018: Proceedings of the DWhG-Cura Aquarum in Athens (proceedings)

Recently the proceedings (two volumes) were published of the 16th international conference on the history of water management and hydraulic engineering in the Mediterranean region, more conveniently known as the proceedings of the Cura Aquarum in Greece.
These volumes include 11 + 14 articles of together 670 pages, on a wide variety of interesting water related topics.
Price of this volume 27 of the Schriftenreihe: € 28 per volume (€ 19 for members of the DWhG) plus postage.

For a table of content, see also the website of the DWhG.


April, 2018: Guided walk along the aqueduct of Aesica (UK, tourism)

On Sunday May 2nd, 2018, from 10.30 - 15.00h, there will be an interesting guided walk along Hadrian's wall including a visit to the Roman aqueduct of Aesica / Great Chesters.


March, 2018: In Naples a new section of the Aqua Augusta has been discovered (Italy, excavations)

An unknown stretch of the Aqua Augusta (Serino) aqueduct has been located in the Vico Tessitore (1 km NE of the Archaeological Museum) in Naples, at an intermediate point between the Ponti Rossi and the canal bridges identified in the basement of Palazzo Peschici Maresca alla Sanita.
The conduit runs for about 220 meters and has 7 shafts that are about 36 meters apart. The site was also used during the last war as a walkway to connect different cavities adapted as anti-aircraft shelters.


March, 2018: The aqueducts in the Bulgarian lands, 2nd - 4th c AD (book)

On the website Archaeology in Bulgaria, one can find an interview with the author of the new book: 'The aqueducts in Bulgarian Lands, 2nd - 4th c AD': dr. Ivan Tsarov. According to this site the book gives a detailed look into the Roman aqueducts of 19 cities in Bulgaria, with an extra chapter on the ones of Nicopolis ad Istrum. One was 20 km long including a 3 km long and 20 meter high bridge.
From the interview: "The new book on Roman aqueducts in Bulgaria by Ivan Tsarov also features the emblematic treatises of Roman architects "On Architecture" (De architectura) by Vitruvius and "On Aqueducts" (De aquaeductu) by Frontinus, as well as a catalog of the aqueducts' architectural details, an index of the mentioned archaeological sites in Bulgaria, and a glossary of the relevant terms."
The main focus of the book is directed on the courses of the aqueducts outside the towns. The book is bilingual: Bulgarian and English and encloses a wealth of drawings and other illustrations.
It seems to me an valuable supplement to the work of dr. Biernacka-Lubanska (1973).

On the same website an interesting article: Archaeologists Impressed with Ancient Water Catchment Reservoir Which Fed 20-km-Long Aqueduct of Major Roman City Nicopolis ad Istrum in North Bulgaria


March, 2018: Special Issue of 'Water History' on qanats (journal)

The March-issue of the partly Open Access journal Water History (volume 10-1, 100 pages) is focused on qanats: archaeology and environment. This issue encloses the following articles:
  • The Qanat: a multidisciplinary and diachronic approach to the study of groundwater catchment systems in archaeology
  • The sustainability of ancient water control techniques in Iran: an overview
  • Mapping an ancient qanat system in a northern Arabian urbanized oasis
  • The ethnoarchaeology of qanat systems: a comparative study of water-sharing practices in the old world
  • Luminescence dating of qanat technology: prospects for further development
  • Archaeology of a falaj in al Madam Plain (Sharjah, UAE); a study from the site

This is not the first special issue. Predecessors:
  • Volume 8-4 (2016): Indigenous water histories
  • Volume 6-1 (2014): Roman canals
  • Volume 4-1 (2012): Roman and Byzantine engineering
  • Volume 2-1 (2010): Ancient Near East and Americas
Note the button 'Open Access' in the right column (!)


March, 2018: Water: yesterday, today & tomorrow (Vestal NY, exibition)

From the Roman aqueducts to National Pipe in Vestal, NY the history and workings of how we use and reuse and continue to use and reuse water is fascinating. The exhibition will be on display from April 7th through May 26th and will include speakers on archaeological privies and modern day pipes and sewage treatment in Vestal, NY and exhibit-based writing activities for children.
Maria O'Donovan of Public Archaeology Facility will be speaking on historical privies on April 7th at 13.00h.

Venue: Vestal museum, 328 Vestal Parkway East, Vestal, NY 13850 (next to the Public Library). Opening hours: Thurs - Sat 11.00 - 15.00h


March, 2018: Remains uncovered of the Roman aqueduct of Cadiz (Spain; excavations)

The remains of a Roman aqueduct dating back to the 1st century have been uncovered in the southern Spanish city of Cadiz in the wake of storm Emma. Once the winds died down, the removal of several feet of sand from Cadiz's Cortadura beach revealed these extraordinary archaeological treasures, as well as the remains of a road dating back to the 16th-17th century which was destroyed by a tsunami in 1755.

Stretching almost 50 miles inland to the freshwater springs of Tempul, Cadiz's Roman aqueduct was one of the most important feats of engineering undertaken in Hispania and is said to be the fifth-largest construction of its kind in the Roman Empire. The final stretch is believed to have run across the sea to Cadiz - which was described by Roman geographers and historians as an island, though it is now joined to mainland Spain by the slender Cortadura beach.

For more details of the whole aqueduct of Cadiz, see:


February, 2018: Great waterworks in Roman Greece (book)

Though there have been an increased number of scientific publications on Roman aqueducts in Greece, there is still a lack of a concise publication that would provide the archaeological community with gathered knowledge and data upon these significant monuments - on grounds of archaeological information, engineering progress and technological development. Similarly, studies related to monumental fountains and nymphaea in the Greek provinces were until now confined to their architectural and typological study, without expanding to other issues, such as decoration, interaction with their surrounding environment, and their impact upon the local communities.

Based on the above, the collective volume that we here present consists the very first presentation of great waterworks in Roman Greece and aims not only to fill an essential scientific gap but also aims to bring together a wide body of experts along with their knowledge from the newly emerged and expanding field of water technology and water archaeology in Roman Greece. The main goal that this multi-author volume attempts to succeed is to show that large scale waterworks (aqueducts and nymphaea):
  • were a striking novelty in the Greek Provinces, both in form and function
  • drastically changed the architectural landscape of their surrounding environment
  • improved the living standards
  • increased the water supply, in quantity and in quality
  • introduced the concept of luxury in the urban landscape, and
  • formed the link between utility and design, political ambitions and regional development.


January, 2018: A new section of the Cimeau aqueduct of Poitiers found (France, excavations)

"During a survey done last February (2017), we supposed to find prehistoric remains because we thought that the Roman aqueduct of Cimeau)*, which winds 12 km from its source to Poitiers, went more or less straight on to the city" explains archaeologist Frederic Gerber, engineer at Inrap. In fact the aqueduct here follows the bottom of a thalweg. Now a week of work has already made it possible to strip the earth covering a large part of the often intact aqueduct that winds along the bottom of the dry valley, and the specialists were able to make initial observations.

The duct is 0,60 m deep and 0,40 m wide, there were shaft nearly every 10 meters. In the next few weeks, the archaeologists are going to make cuts for concretion records that will also provide information on the water flow. Among the first interesting findings: "At the end of a curve, we have a spillway on one side that was used for decantation and perhaps to control the flow that could have been strong during the spring".

Since 2015, Frederic Gerber has led a Collective Research Project entitled "The Topographic Atlas of the Ancient Aqueducts of Poitiers". Subject to authorization from the DRAC, it brings together a dozen people from the University of Poitiers, Inrap, the AAPC (Association of Archaeologists of Poitou and Charentes), SRA Aquitaine, and research consultants like Jean-Louis Hillairet (specialist of Saintes aqueducts) and Philippe Leveau, professor emeritus of the University of Aix-en-Provence, a great French specialist in Roman aqueducts.
The overall publication of the work - carried out with Jean-Jacques Arbona, archaeologist correspondent of the SRA, who has been active for about twenty years on the subject - will take place in 2019.

)* one of the three aqueducts that fed Roman Poitiers; the other ones were Basse-Fontaine and Fleury WDS


January, 2018: Roman water management and infrastructure (May 2018; Cologne / Bonn) (congress)

The two neighbouring cities of Cologne and Bonn (Germany) are pleased to invite you to the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, which will be held from 22 - 26 May 2018. The congress, organized every five years by the Associazone Internazionale di Archeologia Classica (AIAC), provides the most important platform of exchange for all disciplines that deal with Greco-Roman civilization and their neighbouring cultures from the Aegean Bronze Age to the end of Late Antiquity.

The topic of the congress 'Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World' will be addressed in 11 sessions. One additional session will be reserved for topics outside of the main theme. The sessions are subdivided into more than 100 panels, each of them addressing with a particular research question. Panel 8.18 - on May 25, from 14.30 - 16.30h - is about Roman water management and infrastructure.


January, 2018: Sporting and tourist activities around aqueducts (tourism)

Walking tour along the Gier aqueduct (Lyon, France)
An 8 km long hike-discovery tour along the Roman aqueduct of Gier, from the Gallo-Roman museum in Fourvière (Fourviere hill, Lyon, France) to the Aqueduct House in Beaunant, by the GAROM association. Picnic can be taken at Parc Marius Bourrat in Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon.
Data: March 10 and 11, April 21 and 22, 2018.
Trail and Lunch on May 24, 2018 along the Gier aqueduct (Lyon, France)
Walk with a guide along the Gier aqueduct (Lyon, France) and have a lunch at restaurant "The tourists" in Izeron. You will visit five characteristic sites of the aqueduct. Equip yourself with comfortable shoes.
The Roman aqueduct of Gier or Pilat is the longest French hydraulic structure dating from the first half of the first century CE.
For more information on the aqueduct, see our website.
Running trail along the aqueduct of Cahors (France) on January 28, 2018
A running trail along the Roman aqueduct NE of Cahors (France). Distances: 6, 11, 26 and 42 km. Last year there were 750 participants!

January 2018: Website on the so-called Qanat Firaun aqueduct (Syria, Jordan) (website)

After several month of work, Jens Kleb almost completed a website on the tremendous Roman aqueduct Qanat Firaun in Syria and Jordan (at this moment only in German): Qanat Firaun

From ancient literature about the region and with support of many institutions, several digital models, calculations and visualisations of the Roman dam area near Dilli (Syria) and several bridges, were worked out. Two completely unknown aqueduct bridges were discovered and are now documented in the website, where you also will find a reconstruction of the 35m high 'Jisr el Mesari 'bridge near Dera'a (Syria).
In addition to all facts of ten years of research, you will find on the website many information on the aqueduct siphons in Dera'a, Abou el Qantara, and Gadara. There is also new information about a settling basin, 'active' second and third aqueducts to Gadara, the underground water distribution system below the roman city of Dera'a and many more items.
To complete this there is some information about the Decapolis' cities and the first dioceses. From every place mentioned in the text, correct geographical position were taken and plotted on Google Maps.

See also:
Mathias Doring (2016): Wasser fur die Dekapolis, Romische Fernwasserleitung in Syrien und Jordanien (DWhG)

source (in German)
source (in English)

January, 2018: Exhibition in Lyon (France): Aqua, l'invention des Romains - until May 6th, 2018 (exhibition)

Nestled in the hillside opposite the ancient site of Fourvière, the Musée Gallo-Romain is one of the more interesting museums to visit in Lyon (France). A gentle slope connects areas that focus on the main aspects of the lives of the Gallo-Romans: daily life, the army, the gods, circus games, beliefs, death and so on. The main highlight of this season is an exhibition Aqua, l'invention des Romains (Aqua, a Roman invention) on the Romans' relationship with water.

Water is vital to human life and has long been at the heart of the concerns of the Mediterranean people for obvious reasons: to quench their thirst, irrigate their crops, to bath, and for cooling off or washing. The Romans were proficient builders and town planners, and did a great job of harnessing, collecting, channeling and preserving water. To do so they dug wells, built basins and constructed aqueducts to convey the water from its source to the heart of their cities, and ensure that it also remained pure. The Romans were capable of addressing the technical challenge of supplying sufficient quantities of drinking water to entire cities.
In Lugdunum - ancient Lyon - water was carried uphill by four huge aqueducts, which liberally supplied fountains, homes and baths. And any wastewater was drained away by sewers.

Note that the France version of the website gives much more information than the English one, especially on the adjacent lecture program with Jean Burdy, Armand Desbat, Aldo Borlenghi, and Laetitia Borau.


January, 2018: Exhibition in Nyon (Switzerland): 'Ca coule de source' [Of course, it flows] (exhibition)

Due to recent discoveries by archaeologists on the Roman aqueduct of Nyon, the Roman Museum of Nyon MRN (Switzerland) now stages its new exhibition which offers an overview on management, consumption and use of water in Roman times.
Thanks to objects from Nyon and other Roman sites in Switzerland, surprising models and installations, the exhibition reveals the importance of water in the lives of Romans as in our times. Pipes, faucets, fountain plates, spouts, and others elements of hydraulic installations accompany deities related to water, coins or weirs to illustrate the course of water from the source, its course to the city, its distribution, use and removal.
Thus we will learn how much of the current problems like water quality and wastewater treatment were already the concern of the Romans.

A leaflet in French gives an overview over all the adjacent activities.
The exhibition 'Ca coule de source', aqueduct and water history in Roman Nyon will close at June 3rd, 2018, and Nyon is about 25 km N of Geneva.


December 2017: Construction work in Rome on the remains of an aqueduct? (threats)

An alarm bell was rung by the Committee Mura Latina and the Association Carteinregola because of the publication of a real estate sales by a site called "Le Residenze dell 'Acquedotto", which name should already cause concern.
Excavations in via Acireale - 500 SE of Porta Maggiore - near the roman aqueduct, for the construction of the apartments would be under way. The associations then wrote to MIBACT and the municipal Superintendency, as well as to the VIIth Municipio, to inquire whether the work applies to authorized excavations, and if it is true that they are going to construct two buildings, including underground garages, in the area of close to the acquedotto Felice, near the remains of the Circus Variano (Circus of the horti of Spes Vetus, east of the ancient Sessorium), and a few meters away from the Aurelian wall.
The Committee Mura Latina, the Association Carteinregola and all the citizens of the area consider themselves especially worried because the construction of these new buildings which should be protected and particularly supervised by the competent offices.
[from: Appiohblog]


December 2017: Water Systems of Rome: Ancient to Modern (spring school in Rome))

This field course - from May 8 - 24, 2018 - will entail excursions to museums, surface water bodies, local springs, ancient wells, geological features, aqueduct ruins (both above and below ground), and ancient baths in Rome and in Ostia Antica, Tivoli and Pompeii.
We will also visit elements of the modern water system including fountains and one of the major spring sources of water. Each day will consist of a field trip, lectures by faculty and other experts while onsite, followed by students conducting water related field exercises including making observations, measurements, mapping, calculations and assessments to reinforce learning objectives.

The major objective of this course is to enhance students' understanding of human interactions with the environment in the development of modern municipal water systems. Main organizers prof. dr. G. Robbins and prof. dr. G. Warner (University of Connecticut)


December, 2017: Comparative analysis of water systems in Pompeii and Nimes (Master thesis)

Recently, Clare Kathleen Rasmussen (University of Arizona) wrote a Master thesis with the intriguing title: 'A comparative analysis of Roman water systems in Pompeii and Nimes'. From this ambitious work I cite two conclusions:

"I located five routes from the castellum divisorium to various public and private buildings in the city [of Nimes]. Nîmes did not have secondary castella (water towers) like Pompeii, but Jardin de la Fontaine (nymphaeum) served as a holding basin and a center for redistribution of water to the southern orthogonal layout. Furthermore, the collectors below the Maison Carrée, the amphitheater, and other public buildings seem to have served a similar purpose.
My suggested routes of the urban water distribution systems in Pompeii and Nîmes confirm that water was distributed to baths, fountains, private residences, and public buildings, such as temples, theaters, and amphitheater. The orthogonal grid plans of the cities are also supported by my maps."

"The hydro-technology used for the aqueducts and urban water distribution systems for Pompeii and Nîmes evidences that the Roman planning and technology for these systems had become standardized by as late as the 1st century CE. This conclusion is confirmed by the similarities of the water systems in Pompeii and Nîmes and the conformity of the likely water distribution routes to the streets grids.
This standardization spread from Rome to the Italian peninsula during the 1st century BCE and to the western provinces by the end of the 1st century CE. "


November 2017: 3D-reconstruction of the aqueduct of Cadiz / GADES (Spain) (3D-reconstruction)

Researchers from the UCA, under the direction of Professor Lázaro Lagóstena, carried out a 3D reconstruction of the Roman aqueduct of Gades, present Cadiz. This video shows a large part of the course from the spring of Tempul to the Valley of the Arquillos, and you can see interesting details of the solutions and the techniques the Roman engineers used to cope with the hilly terrain where the aqueduct was situated.

This is an off-spring of the research work done by Jenny Perez Marrero (2012). The title of her thesis: El trazado del acueducto romano de Cadiz.

See also the other parts of the website AQVA DVCTA


November, 2017: Eupalinian Aqueduct on Samos (Greece) restored (renovation)

A new generation of visitors to Samos will be able to see the great Eupalinus aqueduct tunnel for themselves. Following a lengthy and complex project to restore, maintain and exhibit the aqueduct, as of May [2018] it will be open to the public, once the Central Archaeological Council issues the required permit. The restoration work took 3 years to complete and cost a total of 3.1 million euros. Thanks to this work visitors can now walk the entire length of the 1,036m tunnel.
Note that also the water catchment cellar under the church of Agiades will be reopened!


November 2017: Water and the Roman cities and settlements (Feltre, It) (conference)

The University of Padua, in cooperation with the municipality of Feltre, organizes an international conference on water in the Roman city, from November 3 - 4, 2017 in Feltre (Italy).

Quantities of data continuously come to light during new studies and excavations, which make possible to outline a general frame of knowledge about this topic. This main theme will be analysed from three different points of view which are: topographical, technological and socio-economical. In particular, four different sessions are scheduled for the conference:
  • Water management in urbanised contexts in relation with natural constraints;
  • Water and urbanisation: location choices, technological choices, diachronic evolution;
  • Water and its social impact within the Roman city:
  • Water and its relation with the economic life of the Roman city.
Organizers: P. Zanovelle, I. Piera, and E. Tamburrino.


November, 2017: Demise of prof. dr. Orhan Baykan (1953 - 2017) (demise)

Prof. dr. Orhan Baykan, expert on historical water supply systems in Turkey, was born in Izmir in 1953 and graduated from Ataturk Lisesi and Ege University in 1974. After he has worked some years outside academia, he was appointed as an assistant in the Ege University. In 2001 he was appointed as a professor of the Pamukkale Universitesi Insaat Bolumu. After a long illness he passed away on October 27, 2017.
Baykan has worked on the water supplies of ancient cities of Anatolia, for example at Laodikya and Hierapolis (Denizli), Patara (Antalya), Kybra (Burdur), and Ceramos (Mugla). He had a good publication record.
Many people will have met him during the Cura Aquarum congress in 2004 in Ephesus. The same counts for the 'De aquaeductu atque aqua urbium lyciae pamphyliae pisidiae' - congress in Antalya in 2014, where he and Havva Iskan presented the results of the excavation of the Kursunlu reservoir. He also acted as one of the hosts during the consecutive excursion to Patara.


October, 2017: Water supply infrastructure of Byzantine Constantinople (article)

The water supply in Constantinople had three distinct elements: two aqueducts (the Hadrianic Line and the Valens Line) and cisterns of varying sizes throughout the city; this use of cisterns as a major component of the supply system is singular, if not unique, among Roman municipal water supplies.

The available evidence varies across the three elements. Since the Hadrianic Line has no physical evidence and very few references in historical texts, we have to build up a picture of the line using what can be inferred from the topography of Constantinople and the known and likely users of this line; we can also make inferences from the Ottoman supply system, which is thought to have made use of the same source in the Belgrade Forest.
There is more physical evidence for the Valens Line although its interpretation is uncertain, particularly along the ancient main street, the Mese.
For cisterns, the evidence is both physical and textual, previous studies having pro vided detailed descriptions and dating of some, but we will arrive at considerably more cisterns than has been supposed by comparing and combining the two most recent and comprehensive studies.
While our understanding of how the elements of the water-supply system evolved and operated is still at an early stage, the work detailed here provides a springboard for further investigation and clarifies the questions that can be asked about the Byzantine city's water supply.

Citations from: K. Ward, J. Crow and M. Craper: Water-supply infrastructure of Byzantine Constantinople, in the recent published volume 30, Journal of Roman Archaeology (2017), pag 175 - 195.


October, 2017: Rome's Rinascente flagship store inaugurated including section of the Aqua Virgo (excavation)

In the heart of Rome, between the Trevi fountain and the Piazza di Spagna, the second Rinascente flagship store was inaugurated on October 12th, 2017. The store in the Via del Tritone celebrates the 150th anniversary of Rinascente, and opens after 11 years of work. Inside the new Rinascente we find design, history and archeology. It is an element of absolute extraordinary character and a complex reconstruction work. The archaeological site can be visited at level -1, it reveals one of the treasures of ancient Rome: the Aqua Virgo aqueduct inaugurated by Augustus in the 19 BCE.
In addition, the new flagship store incorporates a small building dating back to the early 1900s called 'Palazzetto', a true palace in the palace. It is, therefore, a department store sui generis, organized on eight floors arranged around a central cavity. It crosses all floors in height, allowing the light to spread. The restyling of the palace has been entrusted to great names in architecture and design.

For an impression of the Aqua Virgo, see the website of AskaNews.


October, 2017: New extenstions fould of the Cornalvo aqueduct (Merida, Spain) (excavations)

During excavation works in the area of Augusta Emerita, present Merida in Spain, 50 km Roman aqueduct was discovered. This Roman town was situated in an area without good water sources; this is why it was equipped with four aqueduct with 8 branches. So many water channels led to the idea that there could have been more so additional research had been started.
Archaeologists of the Consortio did find 30 km 'new' channel of the Cornalvo aqueduct, supplement the 40 km which were already known. In the area north of Cornalvo a 1000 m long tunnel was discovered including 50 shafts, the longest 15 m deep. This Cornalvo channel of in total 75 - 90 km, could have been one of the longest on the Iberian peninsula.


October, 2017: Roman Archaeology Congress in Edinburgh (UK), April, 2018 (conference)

The Roman Archaeology Conference (RAC) is the premier international conference devoted to Roman archaeology. It is organised by the Roman Society every two years. Edinburgh is proud to host RAC in 2018 when it will take place on the 12-14 April, with excursions scheduled for the 15th. In 2018, RAC will be hosted with TRAC (the Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference).
There will be a special session on Water and Urbanism, organized by prof. Jim Crow, dr. Duncan Keenan-Jones and dr. Gül Sürmelihindi.


October, 2017: The Fuente Vieja gallery under the Cabazo del Conquero in Huelva, Spain (excavations)

At the moment there is no expected end date of the interventions into the Fuente Vieja in Huelva - ancient Onuba - in Spain. It is an interdisciplinary project in which archaeologists, paleontologists, geologists and geomorphologists, among other experts, are participating in order to carry out a complete study in which each specialist has a lot to contribute.
The Archeology Service of the Diputación made an intervention in the 90s that already pointed a passable route: 125 meters of subterranean gallery are known in southern and 20 meters in northern direction, including two vertical shafts. Start nor destination are known, although some suggestions were made in de the past, see this website.
After additional research more meters of the work than previously thought, were discovered. The state of conservation is moderate and the channel is very clogged by sediments and calcareous concretion, and that hinder access.

The history of this subterranean water source ranges from the high-imperial Roman era to the contemporary period. Thanks to the recent excavations the remains of a commemorative inscription of a reform has found to which this work was submitted on the occasion of the 4th centenary of the discovery of America (1892). At that time the source was covered and a new enclosure was put in place.
Thanks to literary sources, it is known that there were eight branches throughout the Cabezo del Conquero - the hillock under which the Funte Vieja is situated - although the project is not yet in a phase of the investigation to confirm this.


October, 2017: Second workshop on the aqueduct of Segovia (Spain) (workshop)

The second workshop on the different aspects of the aqueduct of Segovia will be held from October 16 - 22, 2017. There will be many interesting site visits. With special attention to Traian, 1900 years after the death of the emperor.

The first workshop took place in October 2016. Its proceedings(Actas) are available in good bookshops and at the aqueduct museum shop which is co-hosted in the museum Casa de la Moneda (Mint museum), Calle de Moneda in Segovia.


October, 2017: Arcacci - contemporary views on Roman aqueducts (Rome) (exhibition)

The multifunctional space, MagmaLabSpace, located in Via Pietro della Valle 15, in collaboration with Oroincentri, opens for the first time to the public with 'Arcacci - contemporary views on Roman aqueducts'. The exhibition - during Rome's art week 2017: October 9 - 14 - focuses on Rome historical water supplying system, with special reference to aqueducts.
These monumental buildings provided large quantities of water to the ancient city - as much as one billion litres per day. Over the centuries, they stir up great admiration, suggesting evocative descriptions in images and words to modern and contemporary artists and writers.


September, 2017: Visit (in) to the Diocletian aqueduct in Split (Croatia) (site-visit)

Urban Adventures offers an almost private tour in and along the Diocletian aqueduct in Split (Croatia).
Highlights: visit the ruins of the aqueduct, explication why this ancient aqueduct is a marvel of Roman hydro-engineering, underground tour along the remains of the 9-kilometre ruins, and stories about Emperor Diocletian, his palace, and the legacy he left behind.
Inclusions: local English-speaking guide, professional speleology, waders and helmet for guests, two tickets for local bus. Exclusions: items of a personal nature, tips/gratuities for your guide.
Schedule details: duration: 3 hours, meeting point: beginning of the Riva (Promenade) near the mock-up model of the city, Split 21000, starting time: 9.00 AM
Ending point: Riva (Promenade).
More info: tel. +385 99 575 2754.

Note that Split had two aqueducts: the late Roman Diocletian aqueduct, and the Salona aqueduct from the time of Augustus. See this website


August 2017: Paul Kessener's PhD-defense in Nijmegen (NL) (PhD-defense)

Om Tuesday November 21, 2017 at 14.30h Paul Kessener will defend his PhD-work at the Radboud University in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. The title of his PhD-thesis: "Roman water distribution and inverted siphons, until our days".
This open ceremony will take place in the Aula of the university, Commeniuslaan 2, Nijmegen. Thereafter the reception will take place in the same room.

Table of content

August 2017: Website on the aqueduct of Bavay (France) (website)

The purpose of this [undated] website is to take the 20 km long aqueduct of Bavay out of oblivion but also to pay homage to all those who for centuries have been passionately interested in this work and have left us precise testimonies about the existence of vestiges today. Many have disappeared, because it must be recognized that the sites still visible are very few and often completely invaded by vegetation.
Miles of conduit are still underground, and it is certain that with some goodwill some areas could be exploited for historical and tourist purposes. Today we have very sophisticated technologies such as sonar that would quickly and cheaply locate buried areas.


August, 2017: Carnuntum (Austria): a new part of the Roman aqueduct exposed (excavations)

During the excavation work for a pipeline project of EVN Wasser in Petronell - Carnuntum (District Bruck an der Leitha, Austria), the ancient Roman aqueduct of Carnuntum was excavated at a depth of almost seven meters. It was built in the first half of the second century, to provide the Roman civil city of Carnuntum with clean drinking water.

"This was the highest level of Roman engineering, because on a length of 14 kilometers, the average gradient was two per thousand meters (0,2 %) so precision work was necessary at that time. The construction was probably carried out within two years by pioneers stationed here" explains Franz Humer, scientific director of the Roman town of Carnuntum and regional archaeologist of Lower Austria. Many years ago, Humer once had the opportunity to visit another part of this Roman aqueduct, which is about 0,45 m wide and between 1.20 meters and 1.40 meters high internally.


July, 2017: Workshop on wells and cisterns (Athens, September 28-29, 2017)(workshop)

The workshop 'Going Against the Flow, wells, cisterns and water in ancient Greece' focuses on the use of wells and cisterns, how these installations functioned and were used in ancient Greece, as well as how they can be better integrated into our understanding of the ancient water supply.
The workshop is divided into two parts. The first is centred on the water sources in their context, discussing use, function and terminology. The second is on contextualisation from other perspectives and disciplines.

The workshop will he help in the Swedish Institute at Athens, 28 - 29 September 2017. Organiser is Dr. Patrik Klingborg, Uppsala University, Engelska Parken, Thunbergsvagen 3H, Uppsala, Sweden, tel: +46736151874.
Send your application to: Patrik Klingborg.


June 2017: In search for the Roman aqueduct of Alicante (Spain) (excavations)

A new research project has started to investigate the course and physical remains of the Roman aqueduct of Alicante (Spain). Parts of the channel have been carved in the rock itself, but after removing the soil and vegetation accumulated over centuries, the channel still includes areas with the original base and the molding of Romans origin in the shape of a half-round. The water flowed from the area of the source of La Alcornia, located near the place where 1.500 years later the Tibi marsh had developed, to the fertile plain of Alicante. An underground section has also been excavated, a gallery 1.9 meters high open in the rock, with eight meters in length. The remains have been found in better condition than expected.

In addition, the surveys have revealed that this piece of infrastructure was very important, since it was used intensively in Roman times and it was a complex engineering work because of the mountainous terrain of Montnegre, saving ravines and keeping the necessary slope for its correct operation. The channel was maintained exceptionally well, since repairs and modifications were detected in the same Roman period as its layout, which show that it was used intensely.

Objectives of the excavation are to determine more accurately the construction period of the aqueduct - it is now estimated in the high imperial period (1 - 2 c CE) - , to know if several other (Roman) channels in the area were part of this infrastructure, and to clarify its purpose (irrigation, human supply or both). The recent growth of Valencia makes it very difficult to establish where its terminus was.


June, 2017: Review of the Atlas project of Roman aqueducts ROMAQ (review)

On the website of the Society for Classical Studies, Jacqueline DiBiasie Sammons reviews the Altas project of Roman aqueducts ROMAQ.

Her conclusions:
In summary, this portal seeks to collate the many and varied sources of information about Roman aqueducts. Its search capabilities are limited at present, but with more funding and resources could be expanded to make fuller use of the data. The interaction with other web gazetteers like Pleiades could further strengthen the database and incorporate ROMAQ into other digital projects.

ROMAQ exemplifies the struggle that many working in digital archaeology and digital classics face, namely, the difficulty in maintaining such a large project over time, especially when completely self-funded.
The need for expertise in several different areas requires such projects to be interdisciplinary. With more participants and expertise, ROMAQ can continue to build on the ambitious work it has already completed.

To the Romaq website


June, 2017: Functions of the ancient water pools in Jerusalem (article)

A significant number of water pools existed in Jerusalem in the Late Hellenistic and Early Roman periods. This paper offers an explanation of this phenomenon based on its cultural, historical, and archaeological context. The article discusses the corpus of pools, including the dating, the methods of water collection and their possible use in light of similar water installations that were common in this period. In the analysis of the pools' appearance in Jerusalem, the paper examines the broader context of the phenomenon - water utilisation by Jewish society in the time of the Second Temple before 70 CE.
The conclusion drawn by David Gurevich is that the pools are a manifestation of the wide-scale pilgrimage movement to Jerusalem that emerged in the Late Second Temple.
For a more global description of many of these pools, see our website.
In: Palestine Exporation Quarterly vol 149-2 (2017) pag 103 - 134.


May-June, 2017: Topoi conference on archaeohydrology (Berlin, Germany) (symposium)

From May 31 - June 2, 2017 the DAI / TOPOI organises the conference:

Archaeohydrology of oases and cities; water management, climate, technological change and social contexts.

Meeting place: Topoi building Dahlem, Hittorfstrasse 18, Berlin.
The aim of the conference is to promote a disciplinary concept of archaeohydrology by three means:
1) to present examples of archaeohydrological research from oases and cities,
2) to evaluate methodological characteristics of the new subject in a workshop, discussing strategies of how to establish archaeohydrology as a research field in its own right, and
3) to identify basics for an 'applied archaeohydrology'.


May 2017: Frontinus conference in Rome 2018 (symposium)

The next international conference of the (German) Frontinus-society on the history of water management and hydraulic engineering in the Mediterranean region, will be held in Rome, November 10 - 18, 2018.
The program includes a series of short lectures (in German or English) and interesting site visits, often to places general not open to the public. Application before June 29, 2017. For more details, see the website of the Frontinus society.


April 2017: Two stretches of a 3rd c BCE aqueduct discovered in Rome (excavations)

1. Remains of one of the oldest aqueducts in Rome has been discovered during constructions works in the center of the city. The aqueduct dates back to the 3rd century BCE and its unearthed section is of 32 meters long. "The ruins emerged during work on a ventilation shaft about 32 meters wide and involving an area of about 800 square meters for line C of the metro, which started over two years ago", said Simona Morretta, the heritage department's head archaeologist for the area.
In the mean time it became clear that these remains were part of the ancient Aqua Appia (312 BCE), see the sources below.
Note the huge stones and the type of roof of the aqueduct.

source (Metro C)
EuroNews (in French)
Short film on Facebook of the Sopratendenza Speciale Roma

2. During the same period another part of the Aqua Appia was revealed in the quarters of Centocelle / Tor Tre Teste, near the Viale Palmiro Togliatti. This area is well known because of the elevated arches of the Aqua Alexandrina. But during preparations of construction works, a stretch of the same Aqua Appia was found at a level of 17 meters below the surface. The first discovery were 9 shafts, 45 meters apart, measuring 2 x 2 m each. The in total 500 m of channel was 2 m high and 0,75 - 0,90 m wide. The location is near the 6th mile of the Via Penestina, which fits with the description of Frontinus.

source (Viale Palmiro Togliatti)

April, 2017: Part of the Cologne (Germany) aqueduct sawn in 23 pieces (conservation)

During construction work on a bypass in the B265-road east of Hüert / Hermülheim (5 km SW of Koln / Cologne, Germany) a part of the 95 km long Roman aqueduct of Koln was found. The course of this aqueduct is well known, but its extremely good condition was a big surprise. This 45 meters long part - including an inspection shaft - was filled with sand, weighting 20 ton.
It was too late in the planning-process to build a bridge over the aqueduct, so it was decided to saw the aqueduct into 23 pieces and transport these to a safe location.
When the road will be put into use - at the end of 2019 - pieces of the aqueduct will be placed back and exhibited. Other parts will be donated to museums etc. although the main problem there might be the danger of frost-damage.


March, 2017: Lecture in Tambach-Dietharz (Germany) on occasion of World Water Day (lecture)

March 24, 2017 is United Nations' World Water Day. On this occasion Florian Tanz MA (University of Trier) will give a lecture on the water supply and drainage of Trier. The title of his lecture will be: "Baths, Pumps, and Channels". Venue: Bürgerhaus / Saal, Burgstallstrasse 31a, Tambach-Dietharz, Germany.


March, 2017: 'Offspring' seminar of the DWhG (Germany) in March, 2017 (seminar)

From March 17 - 19 the DWhG (Deutsch Wasser historisch Gesellschaft) organises the 7th Nachwuchs (offspring) seminar in Trier (Germany), under supervision of dr. Kai Wellbrock (Technical University Lübeck) and Florian Tanz M.A. (University of Trier). Goal is to strengthen the interests between young members of the DWhG by exchanging knowledge and experiences. Main language will be German.
For more information and admission, contact Kai Wellbrock or Florian Tanz.

more info

February, 2017: Water in Roman Emona (Slovenia) (PhD-thesis)

A new PhD-thesis (2016) on ancient water works has been published, this time on the Roman water structures in Ljubljana, the present capital of Slovenia. The researcher is dr. Andrej Gaspari and the title "Voda V Rimski Emoni - Water in Roman Emona". It is totally bilingual, both in Slovakian and English. You can find it on

From the same author and the same website, an introduction on prehistoric and Roman Emona / Ljubljana (2014), including a short chapter on its ancient water supply systems. The title is: Prehistoric and Roman EMONA, a guide through the archaeological past of Ljubljana's predecessor.


February, 2017: Guided walk (7/5/2017) to the aqueduct of Aesica (GB) (excursion)

The Northumberland National Park Authority organises a one-day excursion / guided walk to the aqueduct of the Roman fort Great Chesters / Aesica along Hadrian's Wall on Sunday May 7, 2017, starting at 10.30h local time from Cawfields, north of Haltwistle (UK).


January 2017: An additional stretch of the Viminacium aqueduct (Serbia) discovered (excavations)

Excavation brought to light the remains of the Roman aqueduct from 1st century CE, at Viminacium, the Roman fortified town and legionaries camp in present-day eastern Serbia, near Kostolac. Archaeologists have discovered about 1.000 meters of the Roman aqueduct, geophysical methods showed another 1,800 meters, while remote detection found an additional 1,350 meters of it.
It was built by Roman soldiers from two legions - Legio III Flavia Felix and Legio VII Claudia Pia Fidelis. The aqueduct was built of stone, bound with lime mortar. The sides of the aqueduct were covered with lime mortar too, and the underneath layer was made of water resistant mortar. The bottom was built of fire-baked bricks with stamps of the Roman legions that have built it. In the upper part, the aqueduct was covered with massive floor bricks. Its total length was about 10 kilometers.


January 2017: Earliest Roman Aqueduct of Ancient Philipopolis Discovered in Plovdiv (Bulgaria) (excavations)

Second century CE Roman structures from what was the earliest aqueduct of ancient Philipopolis, the predecessor of today's Plovdiv in southern Bulgaria, have been discovered during a road rehabilitation project. Along the route of the Komatevsko Shose road, the archaeologists have also found clay pipes from a late antiquity pipeline.


January 2017: temporary closing of the Pont du Gard Museum (France) (museum)

Because of maintenance, the museum, cinema and lido area near the Pont du Gard aqueduct bridge are closed from January 9 - 22, 2017.


December 2016: two important DWhG-publications (books)

What I discovered too late in 2016: two new publications of the Deutsche Wasserhistorische Gesellschaft (DWhG):

- Wasser für die Dekapolis, römische Fernwasserleitung in Syrien und Jordanien, (Water for the Decapolis, a Roman long-distance water channel in Syria and Jordan, in German), written by prof. dr. M. Döring and others.
DWhG-Sonderband nr 12 (2016), 370 pages including many beautiful drawings. Price € 44,90 (DWhG-members € 32,-) plus postage.

- Die innerstädtische Wasserbewirtschaftung im hellenistisch-römischen Pergamon (The inner-city water supply in Hellenistic and Roman Pergamon, in German), PhD-thesis of Dr.-ing. K Wellbrock.
DWhG-Sonderband nr 14 (2016), 292 pages. Price € 36,- (DWhG-members € 28,- ) plus postage.

These publications can be ordered by an E-mail to the DWhG or by using a form via the website.


December 2016: New web address of the Hydra-website (URL-change)

The Hydria-project calls itself as a website on collection, storage & distribution of water in antiquity, linking ancient wisdom to modern needs. Its focus is on ancient water systems around the Mediterranean, not only (Roman) aqueducts but also qanats, cisterns, and aqueducts of more recent dates.
The website encloses now over 30 monographs from Morocco to Jordan and from Croatia to Algeria, in English and partly in Greek and Arabic.
Recently it moved its complete website from to


November, 2016: Underground Aqueducts Handbook (book)

This book presents the major engineering achievements in underground aqueducts from around the world and throughout history. It provides valuable insights into water technologies and management with respect to durability, adaptability to the environment, and sustainability. Comparisons of the technological underground aqueduct developments from several regions are made. These technologies are the underpinning of modern achievements in water supply engineering and water management practices, and current issues of sustainability, cost-effectiveness, and decentralization have led engineers to consider combining older proven technologies with modern infrastructure advancements. [text from the website of CRC-Press]
Editors: A.N. Angelakis, E. Chiotis, S. Eslamian, and H. Weingartner.
Price £ 127 (probably € 200), 522 pages.

Enclosed the Table of Content, Preface and List of Authors.
Preview including the first chapter.


November, 2016: the Roman road, the monumental arch and the aqueduct in Tyr (book)

This book focuses on monuments of the site of Tyre el-Bass (close to present Sour, Lebanon), one of two main archaeological areas of Tyre city in an extra-urban position: the ancient road, the monumental arch and the aqueduct. The ancient road is the backbone of the site. The monumental arch dates back to the end of the first century CE and spans the ancient road just before the circus; its function would have been that of an urban gateway defining the limits of the municipal area and acting as a customs post.
The aqueduct is at the southern side of the road that captures the sources of Ras al-Ain, located 5 km to the south of the city. This aqueduct extends to a 7 km length and has several sections, some of which are well preserved.
Price € 55, 238 pages.

Use the field 'Rechercher un livre' by typing the title of the book.

November, 2016: New dating of the famous aqueduct of Segovia (Spain)

El País reports that the discovery of a coin has revised the construction date for the Segovia Aqueduct to the early years of the second century A.D. A team of researchers analyzed materials collected during an excavation at three of the aqueduct's pillars in the Plaza del Azoguejo, the city's old market square, in 1998. The fill in the foundations included ceramics from workshops in La Rioja dating to the first third of the second century A.D., and a Roman coin minted between A.D. 112 and 116. Previous studies of anchors used to hang large bronze letters on the arches of the aqueduct suggested that the structure had been erected around A.D. 98.

El Pais
(AIA) Archaeology

November 2016: five new entries of Spanish aqueducts (website)

After a full week of travelling photo material has been collected about five well-known Spanish aqueducts like the ones of Andelos (only partly Roman!), Barcelona (scarce remains), Los Banales (wooden channel?) and Uxama with its characteristic shaped Ucero tunnel.


October, 2016: The archaeology of the water supply of Gortyn (Crete) in late Antiquity (PhD-thesis)

Ancient aqueducts have long commanded the attention of archaeologists, both for their intrinsic, monumental importance and for their significance as infrastructures closely related to the concept of civilisation. An aqueduct, in fact, is an artefact that has a great potential for providing information concerning at least two major aspects of ancient society: those relating to structural, technical, and engineering matters, and those relating to building and construction technology. These topics have enjoyed considerable attention in past studies, and in recent years they have also been integrated with a multi-disciplinary and contextual approach. They have further increased the potential of the analysis of ancient hydraulic systems, turning them into historical subjects capable of expanding our knowledge of the urban and social transformation of ancient cities and their territories.

In the current study on the early Byzantine aqueduct of Gortyn (Crete), Elisabetta Giorgi follows this tradition, but starts from a viewpoint related not so much to the aqueduct itself, as to a series of questions about the city: what was the appearance of Gortyn in the early Byzantine era? How did the inhabitants live? Where did they live and what did they do for living?

The aqueduct was born with the Roman city and accompanied it for its entire lifetime, constituting the backbone around which the various forms of urban settlement were redrawn at each major historical stage. Its vital link with everyday life makes the aqueduct a key witness for the study of the transformations of the city over the long term.
The text is electronically available under 'Open Access', see URL, or in paper via the publisher.


October 2016: Roman water supply systems (article)

In 2014 Isaac Moreno received the Frontinus medal. Recently he published the long version of his acceptance speech on the Traianus site. Most interesting are his remarks on the dating of some 'Roman' dams in Spain amoung which the dams north of Merida.


September 2016: Symposium on ancient water for Toledo (symposium)

The official titel of this symposium - held on September 29 and 30, 2016 in Toledo - is 'El agua en Toledo y en su entorno, épocas romana y medieval (Water in Toledo and its surroundings in Roman and medieval times).

The main archaeological data from excavations in the city of Toledo were addressed in three courses, organized by the University of Castilla-La Mancha in Toledo, in 1999, 2005 and 2009. The present symposium aims to exchange views and information among historians, archaeologists and architects who have investigated the water in the city of Toledo and its surroundings in Roman and medieval times.

They will address among others the following topics: the written contribution to the knowledge of Toledo and its environment, water in the city in public spaces like baths and fountains, in religious space (cathedral, churches, synagogues, ritual baths), in private spaces, the economy of the city, tannery, pottery, etc . and also the chronology of architecture linked to water in Roman and medieval times.


September 2016: 4th IWA symposium on water in ancient civilizations (symposium)

The 4th IWA international symposium on water and wastewater technologies in ancient civilizations will be held in Coimbra (Portugal) from September 17 - 19, 2016.
It is dedicated to themes relevant to ancient, traditional and cultural technologies of water and wastewater globally, since the prehistoric era. This event also aims to promote interactions, to motivate discussions and to encourage collaborations among the global community on water, wastewater and stormwater management. Information about ancient technologies of water and sanitation in various civilizations, which enhance durable engineering practices and water management, are crucial to develop present and future technologies.


August 2016: Overview of the major aqueducts in Hispania (e-book)

Recently Elena Sánchez López and Javier Martínez Jiménez made a beautiful overview of the top 66 Roman aqueducts in Spain and Portugal under the title 'Los acueductos de Híspania, constructción y abandono'. This 300 pagine book is downloadable free from the website of the Fundación Juanelo Turriano and is part of the Colección Juanelo Turriano de Historia de la Ingeniería.

This book provides a detailed and updated study of Roman aqueducts of Hispania. Divided in two parts, the first exposes the origin, use, construction, and abandonment of this important part of the Spanish and Portuguese infrastructure in antiquity. The second part is a comprehensive catalog of known aqueducts in the Iberian Peninsula, allowing us to complete the analysis of the contribution of this region to one of the most important legacies of the history of civil engineering.


July 2016: Prolongation of the exhibition "Water for the Roman towns" until October 2016

The exhibition "Water for the Roman towns" in the Archaeological Park Xanten (APX) is prolonged until October 30, 2016. See also our announcement in November 2015 below.


July 2016: A new book about the Gier aqueduct (Lyon, France) (book)

Recently Jean-Claude Litaudon published a new book about the Gier aqueduct of Lyon, the result of 20 years of study. The title of the book (over 300 pages in full colour) is: L'aqueduc romain du Gier ou du Pilat" and can be ordered by Jean-Claude Litaudon, 1, Place Aristide-Briand, 42100 Saint-Etienne, or via the author. The price is € 25,- plus postage.


July 2016: News from the Frontinus Society

News from the German Frontinus society:
  • The proceedings of the Frontinus symposium in 2014 in Antalya (Turkey) with as title: "De Aquaeductu atque Aqua Urbium Lyciae Pamphyliae Pisidiae, the Legacy of Sextus Julius Frontinus" has been published and can be ordered by the Frontinus Socieity
  • During the festive symposium because of the 40th anniversary of the Frontinus Gesellschaf in May 2016 in Trier, dipl.-ing. Gilbert Wiplinger received the annual Frontinus medal and prof. dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Merkel was appointed honorary member of the society
  • A study trip was announced to Xanten Archaeological park en museum on October 11 and 12, 2016.

(German) source

July 2016: Results of sinter analysis of the Patara aqueduct (Open Access article)

Carbonate deposits in the aqueduct of Patara (Turley) represent a high-resolution record of palaeotemperature and precipitation for SW Turkey covering the complete reign of the Emperor Nero. The period shows a cooling and drying trend after an initial warm and more humid period, interrupted by a few anomalous years. These 2 cm of calcite highlight the significance of carbonate deposits in ancient water supply systems as a high-resolution archive for palaeoclimate, palaeoseismology and archaeology.
Including a translation of the well-known inscription of the siphon. For the Patara aqueduct, see this website.


June 2016: Hiking and Cycle tours along Roman aqueducts (28/8 and 11/9/2016)

Hiking and cycling along a Roman aqueduct is fun. On August 28 there is a tour along the aqueduct of Augst (Sw) to the local Roman Festival. The railway station in Lausen is the starting place at 7.50h (!).
The 60 km long cycling tour is a fortnight later on September 11 along the aqueduct of Köln (Cologne, Germany).
For details about the aqueducts, see this website.

Hiking towards Augst (Sw)
Cycling to Köln (Germany)

May, 2016: Water channel found in Trier (Germany) during construction work (excavations)

During construction work for an underground car park next to hotel 'Deutscher Hof' in Trier (Germany), archaeologists of the Landesmuseum have uncovered a very well-preserved Roman water channel. This find was absolutely surprising.
In the archives of the Landesmuseum there was no evidence that a suitable canal construction would be suspected at this point. One cannot say definitively, which water ran through this line. The construction rather speaks for a fresh water line, the location of the channel and the route hint to a channel for drainage water. Research will continue to find out.

When this sensational discovery became known to the hotel manager, she realized that part of the channel had to be preserved on site and to be exhibited for the guests. She found two partners in a local archaeological bureau and drinking water company of Trier, to realize this plan.


May 2016: Roman plumbing wrote a record of Mount Vesuvius' eruption (article)

Studying sediments from the harbor of Naples, Italy, scientists found a sudden shift in sediment lead around 79 C.E., coinciding with the famous eruption of nearby Mount Vesuvius. Volcanic ash could have clogged the pipes, or ground motion could have damaged them, forcing the Romans to replace them with lead from a different source, according to a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (published ahead of print May 16, 2016, doi:10.1073/pnas.1600893113).


May 2016: Cracks in one of the bridge piers of the ancient aqueduct of Sexi / Almunecar (Spain)

At Almunecar, ancient Sexi in southern Spain, at least one section of aqueduct bridge A3 (see the description on our website), is showing cracks. It appears that one of the main support columns has an 'alarming' crack through it, affecting the stone work and mortar. The aqueduct was built in the 1st century CE.


April 2016: How to date sinter by 230 Th/U-method (scientific article)

Carbonate deposits in aqueducts, known as calcareous sinter, can reach a considerable thickness and are commonly annually laminated. Environmental and palaeoclimate proxies measured in calcareous sinter samples, such as stable oxygen and carbon isotopes and trace elements, can provide important highresolution information on hydrological conditions, temperature, and local precipitation in the catchment area of an aqueduct. In order to utilize the proxy data for palaeoclimate reconstruction, the sinter deposits must be dated by annual laminae counting and more precisely by 230Th/U-dating. Here a systematic approach is presented to date sinter deposits from various locations in western and eastern Europe using the 230Th/U-method.


April 2016: The aqueduct of Tyre (Lebanon) (article)

The Roman aqueduct of Tyre is represented in numerous travelers' accounts as well as in plans and illustrations. Many of its sections are well preserved, and the half that extends from Ras el-'Ain reservoirs to the Tell Maashouk region is still - remarkably - functioning. The other half, extending from Tell Maashouk to El-Bass, is only partially preserved and has been exposed to both natural and human encroachments.
This article details the history and use of this well-known monument, describes its architectural patterns, and discusses its technical aspects and the construction and repairs that have taken place over the years.


April 2016: A new trekking path SE of Perugia (Italy)

The recent restoration of the Roman aqueduct between Collepino and Spello (middle Italy, Perugia area) has made available a new pathway of almost 5 km, suitable for trekking and mountain biking. It starts from below the village of Collepino and it reaches the center of the city of Infiorate di Spello.


March 2016: Cologne aqueduct on ZDF-television (Germany)

In the German ZDF-series Terra X three programmes on Romans along the river Rhine ("Rom am Rhein"). Some attention will be paid to the aqueduct of Cologne (Köln) and its sinter, presented by dr. Klaus Grewe, see the ZDF-website, also for additional information (!)
To be broadcasted on March 20th and 27th, and April 3rd, at 19.30h local time.

source: ZDF

March 2016: Mapping the subterranean aqueduct of Tarentum (Italy) (article)

This paper presents an integrated analysis using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) studies to map the Triglio aqueduct that in Roman times supplied fresh water to the ancient town of Tarentum, modern Taranto, Apulia region, Italy.


March 2016: Chr. Ohlig's new publication on water in Pompeii (booklet)

Recently dr. Chr. Ohlig issued a new publication (in German) on water in Pompeii: "Wasser im antiken Pompeji" with 64 pages and even more illustrations. The price is € 10,- plus shipping costs, to be ordered by Dr. Chr. Ohlig, Parkstrasse 32, 46487 Wesel, tel.: 049 2803 1080, fax: 049 2803 802215, e-mail: christoph.ohlig at or mail at

source: Rundbriefe 2016-3

March, 2016: Bethlehem Museum celebrates its first anniversary

On the March 5th, 2016, Bethlehem Museum celebrated its first year anniversary, as well as the grand opening of the Museum's Al-Karmeh restaurant and Al-Khan gift shop. Citizens, delegates, and government officials from the Bethlehem community and the surrounding area joined in the ceremony to commemorate the momentous occasion. Bethlehem community members enjoy opening remarks at Bethlehem Museum's first year anniversary.

The museum is opposite the Salomon Pools, in the southern area of Bethlehem, and pays also attention to the Roman aqueducts nearby.


February, 2016: Works of destruction to the Roman aqueduct of Osuna (Spain)

Officials of the Nature Protection Service (Seprona) of the Guardia Civil of Morón de la Frontera (Seville, Spain) investigate a farmer of Osuna for an alleged crime against the historical heritage by expelling deposits of the first century BC. The investigation began after the Guardia Civil was informed by the archaeologist of the City of Osuna that the archaeological site near the Blanco river, in the place Cortijo de Girón, consisting of an aqueduct of Roman times, had been totally looted. The entire structure having been destroyed since the clay bricks that made it had been removed. These remains were unique in Andalusia and the construction was an engineering work of which there is no other documented in this area. Bricks of the ancient aqueduct would have been used to construct a new shed.

source (in Spanish)

February, 2016: DWhG Series nr 25: New contributions to ancient water technologies (book)

This new volume, issued by the Deutsch Wasser historisch Gesellschaft (DWhG), comprises new articles (all in German) on ancient water technologies from renown scholars like prof. dr. H. Fahlbusch and prof. dr. M. Döring (Greek and Roman water science and technology), dr. C. Öhlig (water in ancient Pompeii), prof. dr. W. Eck (politics, power and organisation of the water supply), and 7 other authors.

source: Rundbriefe 2016-2

February 2016: Roman-era canal system unearthed near Dead Sea (excavation)

An ancient canal system used 2.000 years ago to irrigate terraced agricultural plots has been unearthed in an excavation near the Roman-era fortress of Metzad Bokek in southern Israel. The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) and the Israel Nature and Parks Authority (INPA) jointly conducted the excavation. The system used gravity to carry water from the Ein Bokek spring to the terraces. The longest of the canals measures almost 2 km (1,2 miles). Noah Michael, the archaeologist directing the dig for the IAA, said that "the canal system, which connected irrigation pools and linked to an aqueduct that conducted water from the spring, was plastered and apparently covered".


January 2016: New research on the sources of the Aqua Traiana (article)

This article, written by Ruban Taylor, Giovanni Isidori and others, aims to bring readers up to date on investigative fieldwork at the sources of the Aqua Traiana, the aqueduct introduced to Rome by the emperor Trajan in 109 AD. Field reconnaissance to recover and document the aqueduct's headwaters began after the discovery in 2009 by two of the present authors, Edward and Michael O'Neill, of a monumentalized source of the aqueduct at a site called Santa Fiora.


January 2016: Probably Roman aqueduct found near Ein Hatzeva (Negev; Israel)

An aqueduct which transported water into agricultural land was excavated at the biblical Tamar site near Ein Hatzeva, a cooperative village in the central Arava valley(Negev; Israel). According to legend Tamar, which is mentioned as part of the southern border of Israel, was built by King Solomon.


January 2016: DWhG announces study trip to the Bay of Naples (study trip, early June 2016)

The German Deutsche Wasser Historisch Gesellschaft (DWhG) announces a studytrip to the Phlegreic (burning) Fields in the Naples area (Italy), from May 30 - June 7 2016. Prof. dr. M. Doering will be the guide to Pozzuoli, Cuma, Baia, Misenum, Caserta, Paestum and Amalfi.

source: Rundbriefe 2016-2

December 2015: US Embassy supports the restoration of the Gadara aqueduct (Jordan)

The US embassy announced that a US$160,000 grant has been awarded to the faculty of archaeology and anthropology of Yarmouk University for the conservation and rehabilitation of the Roman Aqueduct of Gadara in Umm Qais (NW Jordan) according to the Jordan Times-on-line.


December 2015: 40 years Frontinus Gesellschaft seminar in Trier (seminar, May 2016)

In 2016 the Frontinus Gesellschaft will have its 40th birthday. On this occasion the FG organises an international symposium in Trier (Germany) from May 25 - 29, 2016. The first days a small series of lectures will be held, but also the interesting locations will be visited, like Trier, Pollich (Germany), Walferdange (Luxemburg) and Metz (France).


November 2015: Roman toilets gave no clear health benefit (article)

New archaeological research by Piers D. Mitchell (Cambridge) has revealed that - for all the apparently hygienic innovations on the Roman, like baths, toilets, sewers and aqueducts - parasites such as whipworm, roundworm and Entamoeba histolytica dysentery did not decrease as expected in Roman times compared with the preceding Iron Age. They gradually increased!


November 2015: Special exhibition in APX Xanten (Germ) (10/12/2015 - 5/6/2016)

The Archaeological Park Xanten (APX) and its museum in Xanten (Germany, close to the Dutch border) organise a nice exhibition on Water for the Roman towns (Wasser für Roms Städte), open from December 10, 2015 - June 5, 2016. Tickets 9 euro per person.
On occasion of the exhibition prof. Klaus Grewe wrote a book "Aquädukte - Wasser für Roms Städte" (see museum shop and Amazon). There are also some additional activities (a conducted tour, a lecture, three excursions), see second link. All in German

APX (in German)
Activities (in German)

October 2015: Topoi workshop Water management in ancient civilizations (Febr 11-12, 2016)

Topoi combines Berlin's strengths in ancient studies research and is supported by the Freie Universität Berlin and the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. On Thursday 11 and Friday 12 February Topoi organizes in Berlin the second (?) workshop on water management in ancient civilizations. Key-note spreaker is prof. dr. J.P. Oleson, University of Victoria, Canada.


September 2015: 4th WWAC symposium in Coimbra (Port) (Sept 17 - 19, 2016)

The symposium is dedicated to themes relevant to ancient, traditional and cultural technologies of water and wastewater globally, since the prehistoric era. This unique event aims to promote interactions, to motivate discussions and to encourage collaborations among the global community on water, wastewater and stormwater management in ancient times. Information about ancient technologies of water and sanitation in various civilizations, which enhance durable engineering practices and water management, are crucial to develop present and future technologies.


July, 2015: PhD-thesis on Roman water works in north-east Gaul (PhD-thesis in Italian)

This PhD-work of Alice Dazzi aims to present a study of hydraulic and water supply system in north-east Gaul, from the Roman conquest to the IV century CE. This research includes 31 settlements: capita civitatum, castra and minor settlements.
Particularly, the work presents the cases of the minor settlement of Bliesbruck and of Douodurum/Metz, caput civitatis of the Mediomatrices. The study intends to show how water management was organized in this region, including Roman and local traditions. Indeed, the study of Roman low concerning water management, with the support of archaeological records, is a good clue to understand social networks and urban neighborhoods.


June 2015: KNIR-workshop on ancient water management in Italy (symposium)

The Royal Netherlands Institute at Rome (Koninklijk Nederlandse Instituut te Rome - KNIR) organizes an expert meeting on "Water management in Italy from antiquity to the early modern period" and invites scholars to discuss innovation strategies in this respect. To that aim an expert workshop is scheduled, centering on water management from different perspectives such as archaeology, social history, history of technology, history of architecture and agricultural history. The explicit aim of the workshop is to stimulate cross-fertilization between disciplines.
The workshop will take place in Rome, from June 3 - 5, 2015.


June 2015: Travertine reveals ancient water supply at the Anio Novus aqueduct (Rome)

Although popular with modern scholars, ancient flow rate measurements in Rome's aqueducts are unreliable since they only recorded flow section, not velocity. Use of limestone deposits - called travertine or sinter - as a record of wetted perimeter, enabled the first estimation of actual flows in Rome's Anio Novus aqueduct. Final flows reaching Rome, in the presence of thick travertine deposits, were significantly smaller, at 1.4 ± 0.4 m3/s (120,960 ± 34,560 m3/day), than previous maximum and minimum estimates. Lack of maintenance and/or changes in water use may have contributed to this difference. Even minimal travertine reduced the maximum flow rate by ~25%.
  • Source
  • The recent article in the Journal of Archaeological Science, Reports, vol 3 Sept 2015, available at Researchgate

May 2015: Ancient aqueduct unearthed in Jerusalem (Israel)

Ancient aqueduct unearthed in Jerusalem, part of the Low Level aqueduct. For this part of the (Low Level) aqueduct of Jerusalem see our own website.
our site (left column: Jerusalem)

April 2015: Archaeologists discover a Roman aqueduct of the ancient Odessos fortress (Bulgaria)

Bulgarian Archaeologists discover an part of a Roman aqueduct and water storage tanks of ancient Odessos fortress.


March, 2015: Build your own Roman aqueduct in Vindonissa (Switzerland) (exhibition)

With the exhibition "Ingenious Romans", the Museum Aargau in Windisch (Switzerland), the former Vindonissa, presents a new insight into the technical masterpieces of antiquity. The center of the exhibition is the Roman aqueduct. The visitors can help to build a line.
In Windisch is the oldest construction in Switzerland, which still fulfills its function: the approximately 2,4 km long, completely underground aqueduct from Hausen to Windisch, which was built in the first century CE by the Romans.
After the Romans, the line was further used, for example, in the 14th century by Clarisses nuns and Franciscan monks in the monastery Königsfelden. And even today, the Roman line is still doing its job: it feeds the fountains in front of the main building of the Psychiatric Service Aargau, making it the only working Roman aqueduct north of the Alps.

The new exhibition puts this water pipe in the center. The Aargau Cantonal Archeology Service has uncovered sections that are already visible, but which can now be visited. In addition, the exhibition also shows other buildings and technical innovations dating back to the Romans.

As a special activity, visitors can - with help of selected data - construct a Roman aqueduct. Under the guidance of Roman craftsmen and with authentic tools, an aqueduct will be built between a distribution basin and a well.


January 2015: The aqueduct of Cavtat (book)

Officially published in 2014 the results of a multi-year research project of Liljana Kovacic - head of the Archaeological Museum in Dubrovnic - on the Roman aqueduct of Cavtat / EPIDAURUM: 'Anticki Vodovod / Roman aqueduct: Vodovada - Cavtat' including a detailed description of the scarce remains and a hypothesis about the siphon near Epdidaurum.
The book accompanied the exhibition in the Dubrovnic Archaeological Museum early 2013.


August 2014: US supports the restoration of the Roman 'nymphaeum' in 'Amman (Jordan)

The Hamdi Mango Centre for Scientific Research (HMCSR) will benefit from a US$200,000 grant for the restoration and rehabilitation of the Roman 'nymphaeum' in downtown 'Amman, according to the Jordan Times -on-line. Note that this nymphaeum, close to the famous Roman theater, is a special nymphaeum because there are no signs that there was any water supply available on the spot, which is - in general - a prerequisite for this type of construction.


Summer, 2013: Rereading the course of the ancient Aqua Virgo (in Italian; Master thesis)

During the academic year 2012 - 2013 Clara Annarita Giannitrapani (re-)studied the course of the ancient aqueduct Aqua Virgo of Rome including the many changes which took place after its construction.
Content: epigraphic, numismatic and literary sources, aqueducts from the Assyrians till the Romans, the course of the Aqua Virgo / Acqua Vergine till the 20th c, visible remains: the castellum and the Trevi fountain.



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